Human And Animal Disease Conditions

917 Words4 Pages
Human and animal disease conditions are treated or controlled with pharmaceutical formulations (Thiele-Bruhn and Beck, 2005). These formulations are known to be biologically active compounds and their molecular weights may range from 200 to 500 / 1000 Dalton. Currently, there is little information on the total global administration of drugs to humans and animals. Despite the unavailability of data, sales totaled $518 billion in 2004 (Kümmerer, 2009). This figure is projected to increase to nearly $1.2 trillion by 2016 with the influence of merging markets, biologics and generics (IMS Health, 2012). Consequently, increased production, sales and ingestion of pharmaceutical chemicals (PHCs) may translate to higher residues in the…show more content…
Furthermore, effluent samples collected near pharmaceutical production plants in China, India and U.S. were found to contain high concentrations of pharmaceutical residues (Larsson et al., 2007; Sanderson, 2011). In U.S., surface and ground water systems are continually vulnerable to contamination due to the increasing transport of pharmaceutical residues from point and diffuse pollution sources. Kolpin et al. (2002) assessed different chemicals, including organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) in 139 streams across 30 states. Nevertheless, coprostanol (fecal steroid), cholesterol (plant and animal steroid), N, N-diethyltoluamide (insect repellant), caffeine (stimulant), triclosan (antimicrobial disinfectant), tri (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (fire retardant), and 4-nonylphenol (nonionic detergent metabolite) were found at concentrations below drinking water guidelines. Pharmaceutical products such as acetaminophen, lincomycin, ibuprofen, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) were also found in finished and ground waters (Deo and Halden, 2013). Besides, Gibs et al. (2013) reported (μg/L) azithromycin (0.24), ciprofloxacin (0.08), enrofloxacin (ENRO) (0.015), erythromycin (0.024), ofloxacin (0.92), sulfamethazine (0.018), sulfamethoxazole (0.25), and trimethoprim (0.14) in downstream water samples relative to the WWTP outfalls in Northern New Jersey (U.S.). Secondly, a recent published research article found
Open Document