Human Disease Case Study

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3. Echinococcosis species, larval cestode helminths in which humans and livestock become aberrant intermediate hosts are responsible for a large burden worldwide. Cystic echinococcus is predominantly from E.granulosis, or the dog tapeworm, causing 1 million DALYs and over $2 billion losses yearly to the Agriculture Industry because of the numbers affected with the slow growing space occupying cystic lesions that can cause anaphylactic reactions if ruptured. Alveolar echinococcus from the fox tapeworm E.multilocularis, whilst affecting more restricted populations and less livestock, causes more serious health problems with vesicles in the lungs and liver that invade and destroy surrounding tissues. Despite the number of human cases being…show more content…
The parasite is orally transmitted through the ingestion of infected triatomes, contaminated food, blood or viscera of infected reservoirs (Bueno-Mari, et al., 2015). Identified as one of the ‘Neglected Parasitic Infections’ there has been increased vigour in control programs, achieving a reduction in DALYs over 25 years from 2 million down to 300 000 DALYs (Torgerson, et al., 2011). Even so, both the wild and domestic transmission cycles have experienced small re-emergence. As with others zoonoses habitat destruction brings humans and other reservoirs closer together. The increasing popularity of ‘health’ juices and smoothies, particularly those including exotic fruits with healthful properties like the antioxidant rich Acai berry from the Brazilian Amazon has lead to global export of frozen Acai thick paste. This product is thought to be susceptible to contamination by infected triatomes and/or faeces, with no regulations or available pathogen inactivation treatment (Broglia, et al., 2011).

5. Strongyloidiasis is caused by soil-transmitted nematode helminth. S.stercoralis is the most prevalent but S.fuelleborni infections occur in Africa and Southeast Asia from contact with their definitive non-human primate hosts. S.stercoralis is arguably the most neglected of the ‘Neglected Tropical Diseases’, affecting of poverty with estimates of up to 370 million
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