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Option A – Human nutrition and health Components of the human diet A nutrient is a chemical substance found in foods that is used in the human body. The nutrients needed in the human diet are amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, vitamins and water. Metabolic fuel is often supplied from carbohydrates and fats, which are almost, always present in human diets but specific carbohydrates are not essential. * Metabolic fuel can also be supplied from proteins. Chemical energy is all the fuels are transferred into a required movement/action (contracting muscle) by respiration. * Combined nitrogen required for the building of proteins. They have to be hydrolyzed to their constituent amino acids for them to work. * Vitamins are…show more content…
Thyroxine) are manufactured from the amino acid tyrosine + the mineral iodine. Thyroid hormones affect all body cells. They cause an increase in the rate of energy production (aka basal rate of metabolism). Iodine deficiency common in many countries since most food normally have little iodine. Sea food good source of iodine. If not added to the diet people develop swelling of thyroid glands, this causing goite. + in pregnant women can cause the child to be born with brain damage. Highest rates found in countries where little iodine is present in soil (so crops) and drinking water. Iodine deficiency can be prevented by the addition of salt. Vitamin addition to diet There is an increase in dietary supplements, specifically vitamin pills. However, little evidence of effectiveness. The use of vitamins is mainly popular in competitive athletes ad elderly, who are concerned about their decreasing health. But, they are also used when an individual lacks a specific mineral or vitamin. Multivitamin capsules contain the recommended quantity of each vitamin. But, once the body is saturated with the required vitamins, excess vitamins can accumulate. Many vitamins are water-soluble and any excess is quickly excreted, but vitamins, which are not soluble, they accumulate can toxic does build up. Energy in human diet Energy content Normally, the energy needed to sustain the process of metabolism, growth, repair, and other activities of

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