Human Immune Deficiency Virus ( Hiv )

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Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) has become one of the most important public health problems throughout the world as the virus continues to spread rapidly and cause the death of many adults and young children. HIV had had a profound impact on the lives of infected individuals and their families1. The region of sub-Saharan Africa, which constitutes 11% of the world’s population, is reported to be disproportionately affected by HIV and the disease known as acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)2.
HIV is a sexually transmitted infection that can spread by contact with infected blood, or from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breast-feeding. Sometimes, individuals with HIV infection will develop AIDS3. AIDS is a chronic, potentially life-threatening condition caused by HIV that weakens the immune system, making the body susceptible and incapable of recovering from other opportunistic diseases, which eventually lead to death through secondary infections4. HIV is different from other viruses in that HIV can incubate in the cells over a long period of time before attacking the body’s immune system, specifically, the bodies T-cells or CD4 cells used for defending the body from infections and diseases5.
Although the issue of HIV/AIDS has received considerable attention worldwide, most of these deaths from this disease occur in many countries within sub-Saharan Africa. Here there is a substantial disproportional loss of individuals. This has raised concerns over
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