Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( Hiv )

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Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a retro virus that causes AIDs by infecting the T Helper cells of the body’s immune system. The AIDS virus is the final stages of the HIV virus. HIV is a lentivirus genus, which is a subgroup of the retrovirus that causes the AIDS virus. Even with proper treatment, an infected person has a life expectancy of less than ten years.As the virus weakens the human immune systems, this effectleaves the patient compromised and at risk to opportunistic infections that the body would have once had the ability to fight, such as the flu, colds, and pneumonia. HIV attacks the cells in our immune system such as the helper T cells and is directly related to the CD4*T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. The HIV infection diminishes the levels of CD4*T cells. When the CD4*T cells drop to a critical low level, the body then becomes progressively more susceptible to opportunistic infections. Two types of HIV have been characterized: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is the virus that was initially discovered and termed both LAV and HTLV-III. It is a more virulent strain, more infective, and is the cause of the majority of HIV infections globally. The lower infectivity of the HIV-2 strain compared to HIV-1 implies that fewer of those exposed to HIV-2 will be infected per exposure. Because of its relatively poor capacity for transmission, HIV-2 is largely confined to West Africa. (Wikipedia, 2014) Transmission routes for passing the HIV infection are
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