Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2

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Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2
HIV-II Discovered and Isolated In 1985, serological evidence was presented which suggested a virus closely related to simian T-lymphotropic virus type III (STLV-III) infected a man in Senegal West Africa (Barin, M’Boup, Denis 1985). At that time, Senegal, West Africa was a region where AIDS and AIDS-related diseases had been observed (Barin, M’Boup, Denis 1985). The results of the serological evidence suggested that certain healthy Senegalese people were exposed to a virus that was more closely related to STLV-III than to HTLV-III (Barin, M’Boup, Denis 1985). According to the New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute, this was when the Human immunodeficiency virus type II (HIV-II) was first
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HIV-II falls under the primate lentivirus group along with: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) types 1 and 3, Simian AIDs retrovirus SRV-1, Human T-cell lymphotropoic virus type 4 and Simian immunodeficiency virus (Stanford School of Medicine 2016). The primate lentivirus group uses the CD4 as a receptor and have a conic core which undergoes maturation after budding which allows them to infect the CD4 T lymphocytes (Focosi 2016). Some strains of HIV-II are indistinguishable from SIVsmm which is derived from the sooty mangabeys ( 2009 102S-104S), and are closely related to the macaque group (Griffin, Allen, Lever 2001). The macaque group is defined as “any number of short-tailed Old World monkeys of the genus Macaca and related genera” chiefly of Asian and African regions; especially rhesus monkey (Webster 1828).
Virion Morphology and Size HIV-II is “enveloped, icosahedral nucleocapsid with cone-shaped core structure, spherical to pleomorphic particles, 106-183 nm in diameter”, with a mean diameter of 125 nm ( 2009 102S-104S). The nucleic acid of HIV-II is “linear, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA…” with the RNA approximately “…9.2 kb in length” ( 2009 102S-104S). HIV-II Genome. According to Dan Stowell of, HIV-II genome is: gag, pol, env, tat, rev, nef, vif and vpx. HIV-II ends with a “Long Terminal Repeat” (LTR) (Stowell 2002). The purpose for the LTR is for
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