Human Manipulation Of Genetic Transfer And Its Biological Implications Essay

2031 WordsAug 9, 20169 Pages
.AS91607 Human manipulation of genetic transfer and its biological implications Introduction Humans have been manipulating genetic transfer for over 10,000 years since our hunter- gatherer ancestors began to settle in one place and started farming and planting crops. Those humans observed and chose organisms from natural selection to select and breed organisms that showed characteristics desired by them and this began the process of selective breeding. Selective breeding favours recessive alleles that do not persist in wild populations. Selective breeding is a process of increasing the frequency of rare and recessive alleles so that they appear in homozygous form. This has the effect of eliminating the alleles for wild type from the population and the process of domestication has become irreversible. The domestic species has become dependent on humans for their survival. It is from these domestic species that humans have selected and breed favourable genetic traits for their benefit, be it higher yield in plant crops, sweeter tasting fruit, and more milk from dairy cows or ease of handling stock, selective breeding continues to be used today. Biotechnological techniques and applications have been developed that allow humans to take more specific and extensive control of breeding to produce novel and transgenic organisms. These new techniques are enabling humans to select embryos that have desirable alleles for use in breeding programmes and to clone whole organisms that
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