Human Motivation Essay

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Human Motivation

Most of us get up in the morning, go to school, university or work, and behave in ways that are predictably our own. We respond to our environment and the people in it with little thought about why we work hard, enjoy certain classes or find some recreational activities so much fun. Yet all these types of behaviour are motivated by something. Motivation refers to the forces either within or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action. Employee motivation affects productivity, and part of a manager’s job is to channel motivation towards the accomplishment of organizational goals.

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A simple model of human
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Therefore, managers can use motivation theory such as Needs theory, Job Design and Reinforcement theory to help satisfy employee’s needs and simultaneously encourage higher performance.

“Content Theories of Motivation: Human Needs

Content theories emphasize the needs the motivate people. At any point in time, people have basic needs such as those for food, achievement or monetary reward. These needs translate into an internal drive that motivates specific behavior in an attempt to fulfil the needs. An individual’s needs are like a hidden catalogue of the things he or she wants and will work to get. To extent that managers understand worker needs, the organization’s reward system be designed to meet them priorities towards attainment of organizational goal.

Two of most popular need hierarchies are Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy and Clayton Alderfer’s ERG theory of motivation.

“Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theory

Perhaps the most famous content theory was developed by Abraham Maslow. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory proposes that humans are motivated by multiple needs and that these needs exist in a hierarchical order as illustrated at the following picture. Maslow identified five general types of motivating needs in order of ascendance:

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