Human Papillomavirus : Common Sexually Transmitted Infection Essay

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Introduction
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common sexually transmitted infection. HPV family of viruses comprises many oncogenic and non-oncogenic types that cause anal, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers and anogenital warts in men respectively. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at particularly high risk for HPV infection and HPV-related disease (Markowitz et al., 2014). In one study, oncogenic HPV types 16 and/or 18 were detected in 37% of MSM between ages 16 and 30 years (Glick et al., 2014). Anal cancer rates are more than 17 times higher among MSM compared to their heterosexual counterpart (Daling et al., 2004, Joseph et al., 2008; Machalek et al., 2012). Anal cancer rates are even higher among HIV-positive MSM (Silverberg et al., 2012). Moreover, recent data revealed a rapid increase in HPV associated oropharyngeal cancers rates among men in the United States (Charturvedi et al., 2011). Aside from cancer, HPV associated anogenital warts negatively affect quality of life and are expensive to treat (Woodhall et al., 2011). Close to 7% of gay and bisexual men report a history of genital warts. (Dinh et al., 2008)

While three FDA approved vaccines are available in the US, only Gardasil and Gardasil 9 are approved for use in males. Gardasil and Gardasil 9 have been approved for males, ages 9 through 26 years and 9 through 15 years respectively, for the prevention of HPV-caused anal cancer, precancerous anal lesions, and genital warts (NIH-NCI, 2015). HPV vaccines are

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