Human Papillomavirus ( Hpv )

1276 Words Oct 17th, 2014 6 Pages
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for most of both incident and prevalent Sexually Transmitted Infections in the U.S (Satterwhite et al., 2013). Approximately, 14 million Americans aged 15-59 years are newly diagnosed with HPV each year and a half of them occur among young adults aged 15-24 years (Markowitz et al., 2014). Similarly to female, the prevalence of genital HPV infection is estimated to be at least 20% or higher in male population (Dunne et al., 2006). While most HPV infection (70-90%) may be clear by itself in three years, HPV can also cause genital warts and anogenital cancers (e.g., cervical, vaginal, anal, penile cancers) (Frazer et al., 2006). In the U.S., 20,000 women and 12,000 men are diagnosed with HPV-related cancers each year (Center of Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2014). Specifically, men who have sex with men (MSM) are 17 times more likely to develop HPV-related anal cancer than men who only have sex with women (CDC, 2011a). HPV infection and anogenital cancer morbidity not only result in emotional and physical distress at the individual level, but also result in increased health care costs. Approximately one to six billion dollars are spent in the U.S. annually for cervical/anal cancer screening and treatment of precancerous and cancerous lesions—making HPV the second most costly STI, second only to HIV (Frazer et al., 2006).
The primary route of genital HPV infection is sexual intercourse, both vaginal and anal. HPV…

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