3.1 Process involved in the development, maintenance and breakdown of relationships – development - Reward/need satisfaction model direct reinforcement may encourage the formation of a relationship between individuals. Operant conditioning could occur where an individual is positively reinforced with the potential partner offering pleasant stimulus such as smiling. Additionally social needs may be provided for by this potential partner such as friendship and sex, furthering the likelihood of a relationship developing. Alternatively negative reinforcement may be involved where a negative stimulus is removed by the potential partner e.g. If a woman helps a man through a troubled time in his life he may find her more attractive as she has helped to alleviate his negative stimuli. Liking through association – Classical conditioning The potential partner may be associated with pleasant circumstances. If someone was to meet another individual while they are in a good mood, they may then associate such individual with the positive mood, finding them more
In exchange theory, a human being’s behavior has been perceived as a logical decision where one tries to optimize benefits while minimizing cost or pain. According to different sociologists, when someone engages in a social interaction they tend to weigh the reaction of other people about what they are doing or saying and their behaviour will be dictated by the behaviour of others. This, somehow, is similar to what we are seeing in Canadian marriage where a man’s or woman’s involvement in marriage is determined by economic factors (Hou & Myles,
The social exchange theory on the other hand gives a theoretical perspective in sociology. This theory views social behavior in terms of the pursuit of a reward and the avoidance of other forms of costs and punishments. According to this theory, individuals engage in social interactions for the primary goal of meeting their needs, thus implying to the fact that a basic unit of analysis is in the relationship between the actors. The exchange theorists in line with this therefore view social relations and structures as generated by the ties that unite people in various associations.
For years the formation of friendship has been evaluated through the eyes of psychology on how friendships actual form. There
Relational theory is built on the assumption that there is an inherent tendency for people to maintain relationships with others (Hutchinson, 2015). Relational theory is the integration of several psychodynamic theories, such as object-relations theory, self-psychology, and interpersonal psychoanalysis, into a larger perspective which acknowledges that the mind exist in relation to others (Segal, 2013). This theory’s origins in psychodynamic theory can be seen in key concepts such as the assertion that human behavior is significantly impacted by past relational patterns (Segal, 2013). Although past relationships are viewed as influential, relational theorist maintain individuals’ can exercise agency and that actions can be influenced but
Another theory is the Filter Model proposed by Kerchoff and Davis; they say that relationships develop through three ‘filters’. It starts with the ‘field of availables’ which are people available for a relationship where we then filter out different partners for different reasons, so it narrows down to a ‘field of desirables’ who are the people we consider as a potential partner. The first filter involves the social model where we choose people without being aware by where they live, work, have been educated or their social class. With individual characteristics not being important at this point. Then there is similarity of attitudes and values, where a partner’s beliefs and ideas come into effect. This is where communication is easier and the relationship can progress, however if beliefs and views are very different then the relationship may not move from its current position. The final filter is the emotional needs, which is whether the people fit as a couple and can meet each other’s needs.
The Social Exchange theory proposes that we make decisions with the goal to maximize benefits and minimize costs (Newman, 2009, p.64). The choices we make require social approval and self-sufficiency. A family will make sacrifices if they perceive the action will equal rewards. Basically the theory refers to a give and take relationship where there needs to be balance for the relationship to be satisfying.
The reward/ need satisfaction theory (RNS) was devised by Byron & Clore (1970) to explain the formation of romantic relationships, based on the principles of behavioral psychology. According to the theory, people form relationships with those who are most rewarding/ satisfying to be with which happens through conditioning. The elements of Skinner's operant conditioning proposes that we repeat behaviors with positive outcomes (rewards) and avoid those with negative outcomes (punishments). Relationships positively reinforce by our partner satisfying our needs/rewarding us (through love or attention), but negative reinforcement also plays a part in the likelihood of formation as a relationship avoid us feeling lonely which both result in us
People constantly evaluate the rewards and costs of their relationship as well as the rewards and costs of interaction with another individual. Rewards and costs can be tangible, such as money or gifts, or psychological, such as social support or intellectual stimulation (Unger & Johnson 604). According to Unger and Johnson, “if the reward/cost balance is more favorable than that of other potential relationships, the person will remain in the relationship, if the costs outweigh the rewards and an alternative relationship with more favorable outcomes is available, the person will leave the existing relationship in favor of the alternative” (604). Yet each reward and cost is different to each individual. To better understand reward and costs is to better understand each individual.
Social exchange process is romantic and long term love relationships involve social exchange in the sense that they provide rewards and costs for each partner. If the initial interaction are reciprocal and mutually satisfied the relationship will continue or if they are mismatched then our interests
Chapter 7: The Human relationship is unique in many ways. There are people who we have the relationship by blood, and there are people who we choose to be with. The family came by birth; we cannot choose who our parents and siblings. People we met at work is the other group of people that we cannot choose. However, we can choose who our friends are and who will be our partners. "Being in intimate relationships involve exposure at times to strong emotional experiences that include hurt, fear, sadness, anger, jealously, loneliness, and love..." (Butaney & Chates, 2014).
This paper reveals one of two theories based off of a personality based on the formation of intimate relationships during the stages of a person's lifetime. A person’s lifetime will go through these stages called the Attachment application that entails the comfort and security from a mother child’s relationship, to interactions with peers, friendships, multiple selves, and the attachment stage. While the second application named the Knapp’s Relationship Model explains how relationships grow and last and also how they end. This model is categorized into ten different stages which come under two interrelating stages and the Knapp’s
Base on my marriage of six-years, my previous marriage and witnessing how my close friends interact in their relationships, I can conclude that I agree and relate to most of the author’s description on Social Exchange Theory. Just like explained in the comparison level, we all believe that we have outcomes that we are entitled to in any relationship we have. (Miller, 2015, p. 177) For example, in my friendships, if I put ‘X’ amount of effort in a friendship, I expect my friend to put the at least the equal amount of effort. I would not consider my happy and successful six-year marriage to have had costs. We have invested so much into our relationship though. Maybe I feel this way due to the fact that I know my wife and I are such a great fit
Altman and Taylor developed this theory to provide an understanding of the closeness between two individuals. Apparently, social penetration is defined as a process that moves a relationship from non-intimate to intimate. The theory states that this process occurs primarily through self-disclosure and it is guided by the assumptions that relationship development is systematic and predictable and it is also include deterioration or growing apart. This theory also claims that people’s
The social exchange theory controls our behavior as well as the reinforcement for our actions because before we act in most circumstances, we will weigh the rewards and costs of the behaviors. The behavior that we use is the one believed to produce the highest reward and the lowest cost. What we may perceive to be acceptable or unacceptable in the relationship is our comparison level that we weigh the rewards and costs against. The comparison level of alternatives is when we weigh the rewards and costs relative to the perceived alternatives. People also have a comparison level for the alternative relationships. With a high comparison level, we may believe the world is full of lovely people just waiting to meet us. When this level is low, we may stay in a high-cost relationship simply because we believe we could not find any better elsewhere. Molm (1991) shows that in recent research on individual judgments losses have a greater effect on people then gains.