These two factors are related to the red blood cell, so when infection occurs red blood cell the first infected area resulting in the human.” Haemophilus influenzae, also known as H. influenzae, is a common resident of the nasopharyngeal mucosa and, in some instances, of the conjunctivae and genital tract. “(Todar, Kenneth PhD) H influenza is commonly transmitted by direct contact also can be transmitted by being inhaled in the nose, which is the respiratory tract droplets. “The colonizing bacterium invades the mucosa” (Todar, Kenneth PhD) and then enters the bloodstream and spreads to the rest of the body, creating an infection. “The host defenses for H. influenzae include the pathways and antibodies to the PRP capsule.”(Todar, Kenneth PhD). The primary role of the immunity defense is the antibody to the Haemophilus. Since this is the best way to fight this bacteria it makes new born babies low risk for this inflection. The HIB vaccine helps to protect the body by using the antibodies against the POP capsule. When infected with Haemophilus influenza, different children will have different symptoms, the symptoms also depends which part of the human body has been infected. For infection in the the middle ear infection, some of the symptoms are difficulty in sleeping, fever, and a fluid draining from the ears, equilibrium is off, loss of some hearing, ear ache,
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a very common virus that can cause mild cold-like symptoms in adults and older healthy children. It can cause serious respiratory problems in young babies, especially those babies which are born prematurely, who have diseases of the heart or lung, or those individuals who are immunocompromised. In adults, it may only produce symptoms of a common cold, such as a stuffy nose, sore throat, mild headache, cough, fever, etc. As of now, prevention of RSV infection is limited to the standard infection control practices, such as proper hand washing and the frequent use of PPE (gowns and gloves). Outbreaks of RSV infections most frequently begin in the fall and can run all the way into the spring. The most common
The most common pathogen of acute viral rhinitis is rhinovirus, other causes include, adenoviruses, coronaviruses, enteroviruses, influenza and parainfluenza viruses, and respiratory syncytial virus. The most common pathogen of rhinosinusitis is S pneumoniae, H influenzae (nontypeable), M catarrhalis, and β-hemolytic streptococci. Common pathogen of viral pharyngitis includes, Epstein-Barr virus, coxsackie A group of viruses and adenovirus. The most common bacterial pharyngitis is group A streptococcal infection, other causes include Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, groups C and G streptococci, and
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is considered the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in infants and young children. Each year, 4-5 million children younger than 4 years acquire an RSV infection, and more than 125,000 are hospitalized annually in the United States because of this infection. (Medscape, 2016).
The influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae are two of the most common pathogens to affect humans; both generally pose no major concern to human life but have the potential to cause catastrophic damage to the lives of susceptible individuals. With many strains of the influenza virus being a constant presence around the world, and S. pneumoniae being a normally harmless commensal bacterium residing in the nasal cavities and upper respiratory tract of healthy individuals , it is likely impossible to quell the spread of either pathogen and so treatments must be found to ensure those with detrimental risk factors are either protected or receive sufficient medical attention in a timely manner in order to prevent irrevocable damage.
RSV plays a major role in respiratory infection among the childhood population, especially infants and younger children. It is the leading viral agent respiratory tract disease worldwide, causing bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and young children. There are about 100,000 cases and 4,500 deaths yearly of RSV infections in the United States (1). Typically, all children are infected with RSV by age 2 to 3; however, the infections can reemerge up to 5 to 6 per year. RSV was first extracted from chimpanzees that were showing upper respiratory tract disease as an agent in 1956 (1). The chimpanzees had an upper respiratory tract illness in addition to coryza, runny nose, and malaise. The humans that interacted with these
The common cold and Influenza are two common illnesses of the upper respiratory tract. These illness can often be mistaken for each other due to the overlapping symptoms. The two symptoms that seem to present when the flu is occurring are a fever with a cough. Prevention is also similar for both of the illnesses with the exception of an actual vaccine that can be administered annually for flu prevention. Diagnosis can occur in the physicians office according to the individuals symptoms that are presenting or by completing an rapid flu test. Treatments are also similar for both the common cold and the flu because they are both caused by viruses, therefore a patient would not benefit from antibiotic therapy. With educating the
Influenza type A viruses are divided into subtypes based on two proteins on the surface of the virus. These proteins are called hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). There are 15 different HA subtypes and 9 different NA subtypes. There are three prominent subtypes of influenza A that are known to infect both birds and people. The first one is influenza A H5; there are nine known subtypes of H5 viruses (H5N1, H5N2, H5N3, H5N4, H5N5, H5N6, H5N7, H5N8, and H5N9). Most H5 viruses identified worldwide in wild birds and poultry are low pathogenic viruses, but occasionally highly pathogenic viruses have been detected. Sporadic H5 virus infection of humans, such as with Asian-origin highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses currently circulating among poultry in Asia and the Middle East have been reported in 16 countries, often resulting in severe pneumonia with approximately 60% mortality worldwide. The second one is influenza A H7; there are nine known subtypes of H7 viruses (H7N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N4, H7N5, H7N6, H7N7, H7N8, and H7N9). Most H7 viruses identified worldwide in wild birds and poultry are LPAI
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) causes acute respiratory tract infection in patients of all ages and is one of the most popular diseases of childhood. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, which manifests primarily as bronchiolitis and/or viral pneumonia, is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract (LRT) infection in infants and young children. RSV is the most common cause of bronchiolitis (inflammation of the small airways in the lungs) and pneumonia in children under one year of age in the United States. During the first year of life, most infants are infected with the virus. Most RSV infected children encounter
The infection can also be spread through oral secretion. Kissing, coughing, sharing makeup, sharing utensils, and drinking out of the same straw as an infected person are all ways that The majority of outbreaks occur in the winter and spring when school is in session. One-third of all Bacterial Meningitis outbreaks between 1991 and 1996 occurred in schools or universities.
A “common cold” viral URTI may be milder and presents in children as fussiness, decreased appetite, sleep disturbances, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, cough, low-grade fever and headache (Fenstermacher & Hudson, 2016). Influenza, also viral, is characterized by abrupt high fever, myalgia, sore throat, cough, rhinorrhea, and occasional nausea, vomiting or diarrhea (Fenstermacher & Hudson, 2016). Nasopharyngeal swabs confirm the presence of influenza or respiratory syncytial virus, which is helpful when comorbidities exist or contact with immunocompromised individuals is
This Influenza viruses can also be aerosolized, that is transformed into very fine droplets and is transported over more long distances. Thus these droplets usually can only affect direct transmission or the person-to-person transmission within a radius of approximately 1-metre. Mostly the airborne transmission happens through the large droplets of viruses generated when people coughs or sneezes. These droplets lands to the ground rapidly and are large. However, the number
Someone may sneeze or cough and not cover their mouths and another person may come along and inhale those water droplets left behind by the infected person, which will cause them to become infected. Another common route of transmission is when an infected person sneezes or coughs into their hand and touches a surface. A healthy person may then come along and touch the surface then their face, nose, mouth or eyes and then become infected with the influenza. The H1N1’s route of entry and exit is through the mouth and nose. The primary target for this H1N1 virus is the upper respiratory tract in humans. This virus spreads even more quickly among crowded places as well as being able to survive longer outside of the body in cold and dry environments. This specific influenza virus reproduces by the lytic cycle. Once the H1N1 virus has entered the body, it supplements its own DNA/RNA into the body’s cells. This instructs the cell to stop its normal functioning for the body and begin manufacturing the H1N1 virus. This non-living organism “hijacks” our bodies to supply the raw materials it needs to replicate and infect our bodies. Once the infected body cell makes enough viruses, it splits open or lyses resulting in the death of that cell and those new virus particles repeat the cycle, cell after cell until our body begins to fight back which is when we begin to feel the symptoms of the
SARS appears to spread by close person-to-person contact. It is thought that transmission is most readily occurred through respiratory droplets. These can be produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes. These droplets are propelled through the air and are deposited on the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, or eyes of a person that is nearby. It is also possible that the virus can spread when a person touches a surface or object contaminated with infectious droplets and then touches their mouth, nose, or eyes. Furthermore, it is possible that SARS-CoV might be airborne spread or by other methods that are not yet known.
There is still a great deal of information to learn from the study of viruses and the continued exploration of the viral genome is crucial in understanding how viruses communicate, transmit from host to host and evade immune responses. The ever-change nature of the viral genome has shown us that the most dangerous viral infections of today may be undermined by newer and more effective viruses, resulting in catastrophic outcomes. Through the study of viruses, it is the hope of the scientific community to be ahead of the viral curve, preventing infections before they even