Human Rhinovirus: Common Cold

Decent Essays
The Microbe
Human Rhinovirus is best known as the common cold. Rhinoviruses are small viruses that are not surrounded by an envelope. These non-enveloped viruses contain a single-stranded RNA genome within a twenty-sided capsid. This icosahedral virus is part of the picornaviridae family, which also includes viruses such as polio and hepatitis A. This pathogen measures to be about 27 nm in diameter. There have been several serotypes that have been identified within the Rhinovirus microbe. These serotypes can be divided into groups, which include: RhV A and RhV B groups, with RhV A2 and RhV C subclasses. These specific groups are organized within their sequence similarity, as well as their cell entry receptors. Unlike other members in the picornaviridae
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Rhinovirus infections appear year round, worldwide, but have seasonal peaks in the early fall, usually September to November and occur again in spring, usually from March to May. During these times of peak, up to 80% of common cold illnesses are documented to be involved with the rhinovirus infection. Human rhinoviruses can affect people of all ages. Epidemiological studies have shown that children under the age of seven, with almost all children experiencing this infection by the age of two, are more susceptible to the rhinovirus than adults are. Studies also have shown that individuals who have asthma are more susceptible to infection. The mode of transmission for human rhinoviruses is through airborne transmission. Airborne transmission of aerosols, as well as droplets, can be the main source of circulation of the virus, which then can enter the body through the respiratory tract through the nose and mouth. Transmission of the virus can also be through direct and indirect contact and is most commonly transmitted by the hand-to-hand route. The virus is transmitted through the hand contact by the source having nasal mucosa present on ones hands. The typical signs and symptoms associated with this virus include: sore throat, runny nose, nasal congestion, sneezing and coughing; sometimes followed by muscle aches, fatigue, headache, or…show more content…
There is still no known treatment or cure for the human rhinovirus. However, over-the-counter medications will help ease the symptoms but will not make the virus go away. Some over-the-counter medications can be the use of antihistamines and nasal decongestants. When a person is infected with the rhinovirus, it is very rare for the person to be hospitalized. However, it to be taken into consideration that persons infected with the rhinovirus infection are contagious and people that are involved with the infected should take the necessary precautions. Persons with rhinovirus infections are almost always treated as outpatients. These outpatients may limit their activity during the course of the infection and symptoms are usually improved within 48-72 hours after the onset of symptoms. The usual course of this specific illness lasts about 6-10 days. After the rhinovirus runs its course, the expected outcome is that the individual should be fully cured, as the human rhinovirus does not typically produce a long-term illness. If someone has acquired the virus, it is important for the individual to get lots of rest and drink plenty of fluids. More treatments involving human rhinoviruses include: using alcohol-based compounds to disinfect the environment, washing hands, providing comfortable surrounding
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