Human Trafficking : Conceptual Issues, Current Debates, And Future Directions

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Biljana Meshkovska, one of the authors of the article Female Sex Trafficking: Conceptual Issues, Current Debates, and Future Directions, reports, “According to this United Nations protocol, human trafficking is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation” (381). She records that 600,000 to about 800,000 females, males, and minors can become victims yearly (384).
Sheldon Zhang, author of the book Smuggling and Trafficking in Human Beings: All Roads Lead to America, states, “North America led the world in absorbing large numbers of immigrants, at a rate of 1.4 million annually, followed by Europe with an annual net gain of 0.8 million. At the country level, the United States has the largest number of immigrants, with 35 million, followed by the Russian Federation with 13 million and Germany with 7 million” (3). Human Trafficking is growing around the world, and the most common three types are sex trafficking, forced labor, and debt bondage. Heather Smith, author of the article Sex Trafficking: Trends, Challenges, and the Limitations of International Law, records that human beings are illegally transported from various frontiers. She
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