An Evaluation of the Website Children and Adults with Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD) Tabitha Pena Indiana University School of Nursing An evaluation of the website Children and Adults with Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD) Introduction Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is classified as a syndrome that is comprised of a variety of behaviors that often arises in early childhood and is characterized by extremely high levels of motor activity, difficulties with attention span and concentrating, and/or impulsive behaviors (Cook & Cash, 2011). It has been estimated in the United States that approximately 20% of children and adolescents display signs of a psychological or behavioral disorder according to Luthy, David, Macintosh, Eden, and Beckstrand (2015). ADHD is considered one of the more prevalent psychological disorders in children, with approximately 3-7% of school-age children with an ADHD diagnosis as mentioned by Luthy et al. (2015).
In the United States, 9.5 percent of children between the ages of 3 and 17 were diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD (Morris 1). ADHD is defined as a constant issue with hyperactivity, lack of focus, inability to control behavior, or a combination of these (Berger 1). In order to quell the difficulties caused by ADHD, parents will usually resort to sending their child to a physician to prescribe a specific medication. These medications serve a great purpose, but also include numerous unwanted side effects. As of 2010, 48 percent of 325 surveyed patients reported side effects caused by ADHD medications, the most frequent being loss of appetite, sleep problems and mood swings. About 21 percent of these side effects
Regardless of the method of diagnosis, children finds themselves as the victims. With that, one must ethically question why the American youth are the main targets in the over diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder medication. Through extensive stages of academic research, there exists a correlation between the American schooling system, lack of sleep and ADHD symptoms. Shockingly, the effects of a lack of sleep are almost exactly the same as the symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. However, it cannot be medically proven that a lack of sleep is being misdiagnosed as ADHD. There is a link. Moreover, the correlation of the schooling system and ADHD diagnosis does not solely relate to sleep loss; rather, there exists socio-economic correspondence. Identified within this paper are two specific and possible reasons for the over diagnosis of ADHD: sleep inconsistency as
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or ADHD which is often referred to as childhood hyperactivity, it 's a severe and chronic disorder for children. It is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders, and affects 3% to 5% of the school-age population. Boys outnumber girls three or more to one. Children with ADHD can experience many behavioral difficulties that often manifest in the form of inattention, being easily distracted, being impulsive, and hyperactivity. As a result, children with ADHD may develop emotional, social, developmental, academic, and family problems because of the frustrations and problems they are constantly experiencing. (Shea)
ADHD: Diagnosis, Treatment, Etiology, and Treatment Outlook Attention Deficit with hyper activity Disorder commonly known as ADHD is classified as a disruptive behavior disorder usually diagnosed in childhood. ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed behavior disorder of childhood. It appears to be more common in boys than it is girls. This Disorder is more common in boys than in girls and approximately five in one hundred children are affected (Busing). There are three subtypes: Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive, predominantly inattentive, combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive (most children have the combined type of ADHD)(nimh.nih.gov).The age of onset of ADHD is usually in preschool to early elementary school years.
TERM RESEARCH PAPER ON ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER Introduction Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (“ADHD”) is a common childhood disorder that represents developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity and overactivity. It occurs in 3% to 5% of the school age population as stated by (Craighead, Craighead, Kazdin & Mahoney, 1994). Another author (Barkley, 1981) stated that ADHD occurs in at least one child in every classroom. As a result of these statistics, ADHD has become one of the most commonly referred and heavily studied psychological disorders of childhood. Studies show that about 50-60% of children with ADHD in the age range of five to seven years are hostile and defiant. By the
ADHD medication has been proven to be the most effective way to help treat ADHD and kids need it because it helps them focus and will help out exponentially in school and their activities. The affected person does not need to be on medication their whole life and can be easily weaned off the medication because they are all taken in small doses that do not cause the person to become addicted. In an article written by Harold S. Koplewicz one of the leading child and adolescent psychiatrists he says “It has been shown over and over again, in controlled scientific trials, that stimulant medication is the best and safest means of counteracting the symptoms of ADHD. As many
However, even if there are non-pharmacological approaches and behavioral interventions provided for the treatment of ADHD, this article gives an emphasis to early intervention programs to children with ADHD. Accordingly, “Early intervention in the preschool years offers the opportunity to get a head start on trying to bridge the gap between students with attention problems and their peers." If children with ADHD are provided with early intervention, this would mitigate the effects of ADHD on children. Moreover, as recommended in the article, a lifestyle change may prove to be useful in the treatment of ADHD without using medicines. Healthy living thru regular physical exercise is one way of intervention that can be given to children with ADHD. It helps the child afflicted with ADHD to maintain focus on their activity. Another form of no-cost intervention is proper sleep. In fact there is a finding that behavior improved among the kids who got more sleep and deteriorated among those who got less. This indicates that sleep is an effective and powerful intervention which can be done without costs.
Aetiology Like most psychological disorders, no single aetiology is widely considered the cause of ADHD. There are a number of theories regarding the aetiology of ADHD. These will be discussed with reference to supporting empirical evidence. It is beyond the scope of this paper to describe every aetiological theory from these sources in detail, so here I will describe the most prominent theories.
The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses its site to make the public aware of certain disorders, such as Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). This website provides much information and knowledge on this disorder. There is sufficient information regarding ADHD for the reader that is seeking knowledge on this neurodevelopmental disorder. CDC's website provides the reader, or the parents of children with ADHD, with further understanding and knowledge concerning ADHD. The article puts forth the grave and serious facts on Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder. CDC explains the three different kinds of ADHD with its causes, and symptoms. Symptoms of ADHD include: hyperactivity, excessive daydreaming, and making unnecessary
Factual Overview Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, most commonly known as ADHD is a condition characterized by an ongoing pattern of hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity which interfere with functioning and development (National Institute of Mental Health). In attention refers to a child not paying close attention, lack of organization, and
The evaluation of ADHD from a clinician standpoint is that ADHD is a disorder. The ADHD occurs early on in childhood from a common Neurodevelopmental disorder. As a result, proper diagnosis presents by emotionally connecting with the public stating, treatments to improve ADHD symptoms as a child ages and reaches
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), also called "hyperactivity and attention deficit syndrome", is one such "new disease", Normality and illness always includes subjective elements. The reported prevalence is very variable because the diagnostic criteria used differ significantly according to the epidemiological studies. Strict selection criteria
Andrew Coogan, Alison Baird, Aurel Popa-Wagner and Johannes Thome are the authors of the article, “Circadian rhythms and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: The what, the when and the why.” They stated that the main features of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is impulsivity, inattention and hyperactivity. However, they also discussed those children that have trouble sleeping could also be a result for most of the symptoms for the Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Unfortunately, it is not certain how trouble sleeping come to be a mutual problem with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Therefore, they researched and wrote this article to find out why sleep disturbance is so common with Attention
EFFECTS OF ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER ON JUVENILE DELINQUENCY IN BOYS ADHD is an abbreviation for attention deficit/hyper activity disorder. It is commonly referred to as a psychiatric disorder in need of therapy. The origination of the disease is in the neuro-physiological brain construct, and the main cause of the disorder is considered to be genetic (Wilson, 2012). Many children with ADHD struggle with impulsivity, hyperactivity, and inattention (Unnever, Cullen, & Pratt, 2003). According to McNamara, Vervaeke, and Willoughby (2008), “attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorder among children and adolescents. It affects between 3% and 5% of school age children” (p. 38). In a