Hypertension ( Htn ), Or High Blood Pressure

1000 WordsApr 20, 20164 Pages
Hypertension (HTN), or high blood pressure, is the leading cause of cardiovascular disorders and is one of the most common health issues among adults. It affects nearly 50 million people in the United States and over 1 billion around the world (Porth, 2015, p. 425). Blood pressure is defined as the force exerted on arterial walls as blood is pumped from the left ventricle of the heart. A certain amount of pressure is necessary in order to perfuse blood throughout the whole body. Normal blood pressure has a systole of 120 and diastole of 80. Long-term excessive pressure, however, will result in harmful effects (Lemone, 2015, p. 967). Hypertension may be divided into two categories, primary (essential) or secondary. Primary hypertension refers to an elevated blood pressure that occurs with no other cause or evidence of other diseases or conditions, and accounts for 90% of cases. Secondary hypertension is when the elevated blood pressure comes secondary, or as a result of, another disease or disorder, such as glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, or disease of the adrenal glands (Chabner, 2014, p. 422). Local hypertension is also a possibility, where high blood pressure occurs only in a specific area of the body, such as portal hypertension or pulmonary hypertension (Adams & Urban, 2016, p. 543). Hypertension is diagnosed when an individual’s systolic blood pressure is consistently elevated (during multiple measurements) to 140 mmHg, or when diastolic is 90 mmHg or above.
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