Hypoglycemia Essay

1184 WordsMay 10, 20145 Pages
Case Study 1 1.) Define hypoglycemia. What are hypoglycemic blood glucose values in an adult? Hypoglycemia: Low blood glucose level that results from too much insulin, not enough food, or excess activity. It is defined as the presence of Whipple’s triad: manifestations consistent with low blood glucose, a low plasma glucose concentration, and resolution of symptoms or signs after plasma glucose concentration is raised. Four common causes are: 1.) excess insulin, 2.) deficient intake or absorption of food, 3.) exercise, and 4.) alcohol intake. When blood glucose falls below 70 mg/dl or when the blood glucose level drops rapidly from an elevated level. 2.) Describe the clinical manifestations of hypoglycemia. How low does a…show more content…
Exercise usually causes blood glucose levels to fall in a patient with type 1 DM. Prolonged exercise increases cellular glucose uptake for several hours after exercise. 4.) Briefly define hypothermia, and explain why the client with hypoglycemia is often hypothermic. Hypothermia: marked cooling of core temperature that is below the required normal for normal metabolism and body functions. This is generally considered to be 95.0’F. Produces depression of the central nervous and respiratory systems, vasoconstriction, alterations in microcirculation and coagulation, and ischemic tissue damage. Cold stress increases metabolism. Increased metabolism increases the use of glucose. Once the circulating glucose is used, the body turns to the glycogen stores and if it goes on for too long depletes glycogen stores leading to hypoglycemia. 5.) If an IV access site could not be established, could the 50% dextrose be administered intramuscularly? What is another medication that the HCP might prescribe to treat the client’s hypoglycemia, and what is the medication’s most common adverse effect? No, 50% dextrose cannot be administered IM. It needs to be given slowly and carefully to avoid extravasation because it is hyperosmolar and can damage tissue. Glucagon: Can be given subcutaneously or IM. It is the main counterregulatory hormone and is used as therapy for severe
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