LeVay, S. and Hamer, D., 1994. Evidence for a Biological Influence in Male Homosexuality. Scientific American, [e-journal] Available through: Research Gate website [Accessed 17 March 2016].
A highly debated issue concerning homosexuality is whether sexual-orientation is biologically determined or if it is a socially learned behavior. One case study done about this topic gathered that “the homosexual desire seems in most cases to be implanted in those who develop an unusually strong attachment for one parent” (Cory 1951:67). This seems to suggest that homosexuality can be influenced by family structure or other sociological elements. On the other side of this argument, there is the belief that people are born either gay or straight. Even though there is no scientific or genetic evidence to prove this, there have been many studies done and most homosexuals interviewed take this view-point. McIntosh states, “[homosexuality] is still commonly seen as a condition characterizing certain persons in the way that birthplace or deformity might characterize them” (1968:182). To support their cause and to fight for acceptance in society, it would be beneficial to convince people that sexual orientation is biologically determined. “Research indicates that people who believe that homosexuality is a choice are more likely to condemn it than are those who believe gays and lesbians are born that way”
Many scientists have a difficult time understanding homosexuality on the evolutionary aspect. They believe a human beings’ main purpose is reproduction, which makes the sexual relationship between two males a confusing concept for most evolutionary thinkers (McKnight 1). Evolutionary thinkers believe that the less desirable genes are removed from the system when they are not breed as often, but this cannot be said for homosexual males who have been a continuing presence in most societies over numerous generations (McKnight 1). These evolutionary thinkers, like most humans, have a need to place others into
Other studies conducted suggest that homosexuality might be base on difference in the brain structure of homosexual and heterosexual males. In 1991, Simon LeVay, a researcher at salks institute for biological studies in San Diego, found that an area of the brain called INAH-3 was larger in heterosexual men as in homosexual men . INAH-3 is a small cell cluster in the hypothalamus that is involve regulating male sex behavior. LeVay’s finding provided clues that prove that sexual attraction to some extent might be biological. Other studies following levay’s study suggest that homosexuality might be base on genetic. It is believe that “gay gene” is passed from mother tho son.
The topic of sexual orientation is both sensitive and controversial. This is evident in events, such as the Pride Parade, and also in media, where authoritative figures preach against it and speak of its “sinful nature” (Emmanuele, Blanchard, Camperio-Ciani, & Bancroft, 2010). Sexual orientation exists in various forms, it differs in the way it is viewed by different cultures, and researchers propose different perspectives to explain the emergence of an individual 's sexual orientation. In the discourse of sexual orientation,
In 1991, Simon LaVey published scientific findings, that suggested: “sexual orientation has a biological substrate” (par 22). According to his research, the nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH-3), is considerably smaller than those seen in heterosexual men. In 1993, a study done by Dean Harmer found if there are more gay relatives on the mother’s side than the father’s side, the X chromosome can influence a male to become straight. This gene, Xq28, was found in 33 out of 40 gay brothers, therefore influencing a future sexual orientation. However, there have been other studies shown that there is no X gene connecting the sexual orientation of males. Another issue in the scientific community is not being able to agree what homosexuality is in the first place. The search for the Xq28 gay gene assumes that homosexuality is not a default, almost like a genetic mutation for a maturing human. The assumption that something awkward happened when humans were developing in the womb. The search for the gay gene could be an excuse for the cure for homosexuals. Not only that, but parents could design their babies to not be
He contradicted the argument that homosexual behaviour is related to genetic, hormonal or biological disorder. To abolish these views, the author mentions that ‘no school of medicine, medical journal or professional organization has ever recognized such claims (p. 2) - at least at the time he wrote the article in 1994.
Born this Way? Society, sexuality, and the search for the ‘gay’ gene by Simon Copland discusses the actions people are taking in order to find out how sexuality comes to be. For instance, many are looking at science to find “the” answers. Specifically, a study by Simon Levay who is looking for a possibility of a “gay gene” existing, explained, “small differences in the size of certain cells in the brain could influence sexual orientation in men”(Simon Copland). This is one of many studies and claims scientists have expressed to populations of people believing that there must be a gene out there. People are not searching for this “gay gene” in order to plainly
Do people have control over their sexual orientation? Many people believe they were born without a choice. In other words, some people believe they were predestined to be homosexual. Homosexuality is defined as the romantic/sexual attraction between members of the same sex. Currently, the cause of homosexuality has not been determined although many speculations have been made. The cause of homosexuality has been disputed for many years. One could argue homosexuality is caused by hormones, genes and/or a type of social deviance. This research paper will offer another alternative. Specifically, it will argue that homosexuality is caused by epigenetics.
In the article, “Geneticist Says Lesbianism Is Cultural, ‘Not Inherited’: Hamer Claimed Genetic Link for Male Homosexuality,” the author, Joyce Howard Price, examines a controversial research study that was performed by a geneticist with the National Cancer Research Institute, Dean Hamer. Price revealed Hamer’s conclusions of his study which illustrated different reasonings for sexual orientation in men and women. Hamer concluded that “male sexual orientation had many of the characteristics of a genetically influenced trait” (2) but that female homosexuality was rather “a willingness to listen to one’s own heart” (4) and “an openness to new feelings and new experiences.” (4). The author has also included research from other geneticists in
It has long been debated where our sexual orientation comes from, particularly whether its biological or social forces driving these behaviors. In regards to homosexuality and bisexuals, some have argued that it may be a choice that these individuals are making.(Levay 2012: 41)Some have even said it is a mental disorder that one can recover from, but there is plenty of data that says otherwise.(Levay 2012: 41)(Levay 2012: 65) I believe diverse sexual orientations develop in humans due to sex hormones during fetal life, gene influences, and other effects such as birth order influences. I’ve come to this conclusion based on the narrative provided via Dr. Simon LeVay’s book Gay Straight, and the Reason Why, and the research that has been compiled showing strong influences from a multitude or reasons. I will also be looking at a research paper by Francesca Iemmola and Andrea Camperio Ciani, who looked into genetic factors influencing sexual orientation in men. It is clear there are gender differences between men and women, and this is probably one of the strongest indicators that hormones can affect the outcome of variations in gender traits.
The article dives into the 'gay gene’; a gene where individuals had hoped that would be the answer to peoples orientation. While scientists have found some new information regarding chromosomes and genetics, there still is no simple answer that reassures anyone that there is a single 'gay gene ' that defines their orientation.
If sexuality is developed at an early stage in a person’s life, then how does homosexuality occur? Homosexuality in Darwin’s selection theory doesn’t even exist. (Roughgarden, 2009, 127) Some say that it’s based on the person’s surrounding environment and influences while others say that it’s purely genetic. There has been substantial evidence that points to both genetic and environmental factors in developing homosexuality, but no one factor that clearly pushes over the top to define the origins of homosexuality. Statistically if a male is straight then there is a 4% percent chance that his brother might be gay, but if the male himself is gay, then the percentage jumps to 22%. (Roughgarden 2009: 247) These statistics simply show that gay males tend to group in families, it doesn’t necessarily point out anything specific about the environment’s effects or the male’s genetic makeup. (Roughgarden, 2009, 247)
The question of what causes some people to be sexually attracted to members of their own gender generates many different answers. In recent years, startling new research (Barinaga, 1993, p.17) has indicated that homosexuality is possibly inherited and determined by biological differences in Brain structure and genes. This study raises an interesting question: If homosexuality is hereditary, is there any basis for societal discrimination against something innate? If it is nature, it is good. If it is good, it should be accepted. A genetic component in sexual orientation would send a message to homosexuals and the society that homosexuality is not a fault, and not the fault of anyone other than nature. Gays and lesbians are born in nature, just like some people who are inherited left-handed gene from their parents.
Science is uncovered origins a lot of things over the centuries and the human created much great inventions and even explored the surface of the moon; however, one question still on everyone’s mind and science may have solved one of greatest mysteries yet which is: how did homosexuality and heterosexuality evolve? Many psychologist, biologist and scientist may agree with sexual orientation is output from a combination of biological, hormonal, environmental and emotional factors and those many factors that influence to a development of human sexual orientation. However, being homosexual or bisexual is not mentally ill or abnormal in certain ways, although sexual minority is part of social problems that makes output from misinformation or prejudicial attitude. Diversity in sexual orientation has been a subject that has been seen in different perspectives by the different people (LeVay, 2010). Today there are the homosexuals, heterosexuals and bisexuals orientated people are forming a part of our society. This paper conduct an overall study of important and strong factors and provides accurate information and explanation for those who want to better understand development of sexual orientation.