Starting in the head and neck area one will find the hypothalamus, pineal gland, parathyroid glands, pituitary gland, and thyroid gland. Some of the functions of the hypothalamus, which is part of the brain, are to regulate body temperature, thirst, sleep, mood, hunger, and the release of other hormones in the body. The function pineal gland is to control circadian and circannual rhythms, and the release of melatonin. The function of the parathyroid glands is to mainly to control calcium levels in the body. The functions of the pituitary gland secrete various hormones for various functions. The function of the thyroid gland is to increase the metabolic rate to speed digestion. Now that the endocrine glands of the head and neck area have been introduced, now the glands of the upper and lower torso will be introduced and overviewed. The endocrine gland located in the upper torso is the thymus gland, in the lower torso the adrenal glands, pancreas, and testis/ovaries can be found. The function of the thymus gland is to stimulate the production and maturation of T Lymphocytes. The functions of the adrenal glands are the raising of glucose levels, the reabsorption of sodium and the excretion of potassium, and the stimulating of reproductive organs that bring about sex characteristics. The function of pancreas is to regulate blood glucose levels. And finally the function of the testis/ovaries is to stimulate sex characteristics. All of these glands make up the Endocrine System.
Stress is a part of our daily lives but our body has a mechanism that keeps us at homeostasis. The Hypothalamic-Pituitary Adrenal Axis (HPA) maintains and controls our response to stimuli that disrupts this mechanism. From the periventricular nucleus in the hypothalamus, corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) is released traveling to the anterior pituitary through the hypophyseal portal vascular system. This triggers the releases of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) which travels to the adrenal cortex and stimulates the release of cortisol. Once the balance is restored, negative feedback inhibits the release of the hormones (Figure 1). If stress is prolonged and the levels of cortisol or CRH remain high this balance can be disrupted causing a maladaptive response or allostatic load. This can lead to emotional disorders like depression and anxiety, heart disease, and diabetes.
The pituitary gland is a grape-sized endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary regulates and controls the secretion of hormones from other endocrine glands, which in turn regulate many body processes. These hormones include the following:
The hypothalamus is a small, vital section of the brain located just below the thalamus; it is in charge of numerous important bodily functions. The hypothalamus is shaped like a cone and ends in the pituitary stalk, a part of the pituitary gland. It forms the major portion of the ventral region of diencephalons, and oversees autonomic and metabolic processes. The hypothalamus is the connection between the nervous system and the endocrine system, creating this link by producing and secreting neurohormones that in turn stimulate the anterior pituitary gland to secrete hormones. The hypothalamus is central in the regulation of body temperature, hunger, thirst, and in the management of emotions and sexual activity.
There are two specific glands that are needed for puberty, the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. Both glands are located in the brain. The hypothalamus is responsible for many body functions including hunger, thirst and body temperature. The pituitary gland is a tiny organ that is directly attached to the hypothalamus. The glands work in tandem. The hypothalamus sends signals to the pituitary gland. When the pituitary gland receives a signal it reacts by making hormones that controls many bodily functions including puberty. Puberty begins when the hypothalamus releases the gonadotropin-releasing hormone. This special hormone signals the pituitary gland to release two additional hormones. These are the luteinizing hormone(LH) and the follicle-stimulating
The Anterior Pituitary Gland is part of the Endocrine System and secretes six hormones. The Follicle Stimulation Hormone is a hormone secrete by the Anterior Pituitary gland that promotes the formation of ova and sperm. It is a peptide that is produce and stimulates the spermatozoa and regulates the Graafian follicle in females.
The endocrine system is inclusive of the glands of the body and the hormones they secrete. The secretion of these hormones helps to control numerous bodily functions. Hormones are chemicals that work in correlation with your body’s systems to function properly! These hormones are secreted directly into the bloodstream. Some of the systems controlled by the endocrine system are: reproduction, metabolism, growth and development, response to stimuli and homeostasis.
The case is about the same with thyroid hormones. The hypothalamus is apart of the brain that produces thyroid-releasing hormones. This hormone pairs with what is known as our pituitary gland to begin the production of a thyroid-stimulating hormone. This pairing up acts on the thyroid in order to produce thyroid hormones, which travel through our bodies.
Figure 2: The figure below illustrates how the interior structure of the pituitary gland and hypothalamus facilitate for hormone secretion. The pituitary gland consists of the posterior and anterior lobe. It is lined with
Imagine a glass of water; it's filled half way. Instead of worrying whether it is half full or half empty, worry more on how much it weighs, yet the actual weight doesn’t matter. What really matters is how long one holds it. If one were to hold it for just a minute it would feel very light. If one was to hold it for an hour, they’ll have an ache in their arm. Now, if one were to hold it for a day, their arm would feel numb and paralyzed. In each case, the weight of the glass didn’t change, but the longer one held it, the heavier it became. The stresses and worries in life are like that glass of water. Carry them for a short while and they're manageable. Worry about them a bit longer and they will begin to hurt. And if we to think about them
A collection of neurons and supportive tissue running from the base of the brain down the center of the back, protected by a column of bones (the spinal column)