Gamma: this is a ray of electric radiations this is a part of electromagnetic spectrum. In the high energy and low wave frequency part. When ionising gamma rays pass through gamma because they are weak, travel through space and vacuum.
Beta radiation is an electron with the charge of -1. Its atomic number is -1 and atomic mass is 0. It is more penetrating than alpha radiation plus, has a less ionising power than alpha. It absorbed by thin aluminium sheet and used to control the thickness of different material such as thickness of the paper, plastic and aluminium. They use a detector to check if there is more or less particle being released or absorb. If the material is thicker then it need to the material will start to absorb the particle however if the material is too thin more beta particle will start to pass through, that’s how they finds out the thickness of the material. It is not very dangerous if it goes into our body because it usually get through the body, however it is very dangerous if it outside the body because it can penetrate the skin and cause damage to human cells. It is deflected by electrical and magnetic field because it has negative charge as I said positive and negative attract to each other.
The Beta travels faster and penetrates further than any other. Gamma rays are the most dangerous from all since the can travel further and damage tissues and organs. Radiation can be measured in doses such as the Roentgens and the Rem. Radiation in our planet can come from cosmic radiation, terrestrial sources, the body, or man-made sources such as diagnostic radiology and therapeutic radiology. When a person is exposed to radiation he/she can suffer from acute effects also known as effects that occur quickly or chronic effects which are known as long term effects. People can handle chronic exposure to radiation better than a large amount of radiation within a short period of time. People who have a been exposed to large amounts of radiation within a short period of time can become ill quickly such as in acute radiation sickness or could potentially die from such exposure. Exposure to radiation can cause illnesses such as cancer, cataracts, and could ultimately cause a reduction in life. America uses emergency managers to handle aspect of all emergencies posed to communities across the country. Emergency managers use The Radiological Protection System trains and aids communities when radiological emergencies occur. In the United
The process where food is exposed from nuclear sources consists of food irradiation, which is limited to high-energy gamma rays, X-rays and accelerated electrons. Ionizing is source of radiation because of the high-energy free electrons from atoms and molecules. The electrically charged particles are converted to ions. Microwaves are example of gamma rays. Accelerated electrons can transfuse to treat the food only to a depth of three centimeters. Due to thickness of x-rays may pass through the food.
In 1899 Rutherford discovered radioactivity as well as alpha, beta and gamma rays, these were found while he was performing studies on the absorption of radioactivity, which was done by using thin sheets of metal and two components that he found, alpha and beta. Alpha radiation is absorbed by a centimetre of a few thousandths of metal foil. Beta radiation can progress through 100 times as much foil before it will be absorbed. While Rutherford found the two rays he yet found another shortly after called the gamma ray which can puncture as much as several centimetres of lead.
Also while he was there, he was invited by Professor J.J Thomason to study the conductivity of gases, resulting in a paper about dividing atoms and molecules into ions. This lead Rutherford on to taking a closer look at ion-producing radiations and he discovered that putting uranium near foil will result in one type of radiation being easily soaked up or blocked, while another type had no problem penetrating the same foil. Then, he labeled the two radiation types “alpha” and “beta.” He then found out that the alpha particle was the same as the nucleus of the helium atom, and the beta was the same as an electron or composition. He took a professorship at McGill University of Montreal and left Cambridge in 1902. In 1903, he and Fredrick Soddy introduced their disintegration theory of radioactivity, and it claimed that radioactive energy was emitted from within an atom and that when alpha and beta particles were emitted at the same time they caused a chemical change across elements. Rutherford and Bertam Borden Boltwood, continued to categorize radioactive elements into what they called a “decay series.” Rutherford was honored with discovering the radioactive gas radon while at McGill. He achieved fame for his contributions to understanding of radioelements, and published many magazine
They usually cause something specific too. For example, ultraviolet radiation gives people sunburns (if exposed a sufficient amount). X-rays and gamma rays can make people sick or even die. If the dose is not sufficient, then there won’t be explicit effects (called non-ionizing radiation), however it is still dangerous.
To continue, gold has other uses in the medical field along with treating brain disorders. This is because gold is able to absorb radiation. Radioactivity occurs when unstable atomic nuclei decompose to form nuclei with a higher stability. Energy and particles are released during the decomposition process causes radiation. There are three different types of radiation; alpha, beta and gamma. Alpha radiation is when an alpha particle, or helium nucleus, decays into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two. Idaho State University (2011) explained that beta radiation is when an electron is released from the nucleus of a radioactive atom, along with a particle called an antineutrino (para.
The most important factor of the three is the amount of the dose that the body absorbs - the amount of energy which deposits in the human body. The more energy absorbed by the cells, the greater amount of biological damage occurs. Health physicists refer to the amount of energy absorbed by the body as the radiation
Can be traced back to experiments made soon after the discovery of x-rays (1895), when it was shown that exposure to radiation produced cutaneous burns. The use of radiation continues today as a treatment for cancer in radiation therapy. Henri Becquerel discovered after multiple experiments that it was the material itself that gave off the rays. Later on Marie Curie named it radioactivity. She found out the elements which are thorium, polonium, and radium. Radiation was really helpful during World War 1. During that time, people found out that radiation materials that are high can be extremely dangerous. People can die because of radiation, because of radiation exposure. That was proven with, “Radium Girls”. In 1993, it provided a wealth of information on the long-term effect of radiation exposure. The case also provoked drastic changes in both the fields of workplace safety & liability, and the field of Health Physics, dealing with the health effects and safety issues involved in working with radioactive materials. The Manhattan Project that had a bomb involved, led to the long-term radiation exposure.
Ionizing radiation is a type of radiation that is able to disrupt atoms and molecules on which they pass through, giving rise to ions and free radicals. It is made up of energetic subatomic particles, ions or atoms moving at high speeds, and electromagnetic waves on the high-energy end of the electromagnetic spectrum. There are five primary types of Ionizing Radiation, Alpha Particles, Beta Particles, Gamma Rays, X-Rays and Neutrons. Alpha Particles are charged particles, which are two neutrons and two protons. They have a very limited ability to penetrate other materials, because they travel short distances and they have large mass. The only hazard that the caused is when they are inhaled. Beta Particles are electrons or positrons, which are
Beta Radiation is a high-energy electron that carries a negative charge. That is send out by some radioactive nuclei. And it is ionizing than Alpha radiation and more ionizing than gamma rays. This makes travel through many centimeters or even meters. And millimeters through the skin and tissue.
Β-particles are high energy electrons which are ejected from the nucleus with a range of energies up to a maximal value.12 β-emitters are heavily researched and are a widely accessible form of radionuclide therapy. The LET of β-emitting particles is high enough to kill cancerous cells, but is considered low compared to α-emitters which have a lot more particles in the higher energy levels. Β-particle emitters deposit their energy over a much larger range (1mm, dependent on energies) compared to that of α-particles and Auger electrons.17 One benefit to this is that less work is needed on carrier molecules, as the distribution of the β- emitter is not as critical for the radionuclide therapy to be successful. β-emitters are the widest used and researched radionuclides as they offer a large range of energies, tissue penetration, half-lives and production methods.18 This means, depending on the type and size of the tumour, the radionuclide can be varied. For example for a large tumour, a β-emitter would be more effective than an α-emitter, as although it has a lower LET, the whole tumour can be targeted rather than a small area. Nuclear reactors are the most common mode of producing β-emitting radionuclides, however charged particle accelerators can also be used. The wide range of radionuclides has in itself become a problem as it often becomes hard to select the most appropriate. Some of the primary β-emitting radionuclides that are