Political ideology within a state is established by examining individual ideas about politics and how they are related (Shively, 2014). Even though, not every political ideas are equal, however, they bear some sort of relationship or resemblance. Generally within a state, “ideologies are usually determine by intellectual structure from which one can derive number of disparate policy positions” (Shively, 2014, p. 25).
Blau states, “…liberal usually refers to someone who favors government spending for domestic programs, supports progressive taxes, opposes war, and is pro labor and against big business,” (Blau page 1). Those who tend to favor liberal ideas in America are another percentage of the citizens and are just one view on how the government should be run. Social democracy can be seen as another branch from capitalism, it does not share the same ideas of capitalism, but it agrees with a few areas of capitalism. One of the reasons why social democracy cannot become liberal is because everyone in the United States has their own right to support what they want. There are no restrictions on what citizens must believe in. Plus, in the history of the United States, there has always been different political group in charge at different times. Those political groups, which have gained more votes, affect the events, which unfold in the country at the
Ideologies are referred as a set of ideas and values that provides a base for organised political action. They justify and influence the different theories of society and human nature. Ideologies have a big impact on policy making. Democratic and Republican parties differ on their ideologies and values, therefore, impacting policy formulation.
1. List and explain the four main features and functions of constitutions. Be sure to associate your answers with specific models from countries explored in this course.
In New Zealand, as in Australia, it was the Labour Party that initially adopted "New Right" economic policies, while also pursuing social liberal stances such as decriminalisation of male homosexuality, pay equity for women and adopting a nuclear-free policy. This meant temporary realignment within New Zealand politics, as "New Right" middle-class voters voted Labour at the New Zealand general election, 1987 in approval of its economic policies. At first, Labour corporatised many former government departments and state assets, then emulated the Conservative Thatcher administration and privatised them altogether during Labour's second term of office. However, recession and privatisation together led to increasing strains within the Labour Party, which led to schism, and the exit of Jim Anderton and his NewLabour Party, which later formed part of the Alliance Party with the Greens and other opponents of New Right economics.
Most recent social policies in the UK come from a New Labour point of view, as this party has been in power for almost 12 years. Therefore, many of these modern social policies encourage the existence of the
However, while the welfare state flourished in post-war Britain, during times of economic downturn, the welfare state was the first to be targeted. Following the successful post-war years, the government was met with a period of economic recession, major inflation and rising unemployment. As a result of this, the 1970s saw the abandonment of post-war policy and “the emergence of a period of privatisation and deregulation.” Ultimately, the great welfare post-war period was removed and a new “post-welfare” phase was introduced. And the socio-economic policies of the 1970s were described as ‘creating a “crisis” for social policy and the demise of the British welfare state’ This, headed by the then conservative government, was very much a predecessor for the welfare reforms of 2012. The 1970s saw the introduction of ‘means-tested benefits’ to tackle the negative opinions surrounding benefits. In terms of housing, the Conservative government sought to emphasise private ownership, as opposed to local authority housing, which was introduced through the 1980 Housing Act and the ‘right to buy’. This arguably led to a further divide in inequality, as the increase in housing ownership led to the increase in rent. Because of this, the government was left with shortage of housing, which “impacted adversely on housing costs and standards, including overcrowding” . This also meant local authorities had “difficulties in raising capital” which led to the introduction of
The National Policy was the initiative of MacDonald’s government. It was designed to secure the Canadian extension to the western territories for the future settlement and land exploration. The establishment of the NWMP coincided with the implementation of the policy and subsequently the first federal agency embraced a vast range of functions to assure its successful realization. At the beginning of their work the police gave the priority to the Aboriginal issue that included moving bands to the reserves and sustain peaceful relations with them. When this step was accomplished the safeguarding of the construction of the CPR, surveillance of the working personal with the purpose of riot prevention, detection of alcohol and prevention of disorder were assigned to the NWMP. Finally when the railroad was built and the flow of new settlers contributed to the rapid exploration and assimilation of new territories, the responsibilities of the police changed respectively. Beahen and Horral (1998) suggested that the NWMP functions of that period could be grouped into three general categories: protection of population from natural disasters and social disorder, performance
Since the early nineteenth century the reformist of social democracy has hugely affected the development of social policy. Basing its principles on the two theories, socialism and liberalism it has influenced social democracy. The state is a key instrument that constructs social change, social democracy protects individual liberty and believes in state intervention to better the welfare and equality among the public. Altogether social democracy is a theory used by social democrats to transform from capitalism to a welfare state, extending the rights and freedom for citizens. Social democrats accept the confined role of markets, and the economic system. Social democracy is achieved through parliament distributing goods and implementing policies that support the welfare promoting egalitarianism, such as taxing the wealthy to redistribute wealth.
A population’s views on political issues may change as different circumstances occur each day. The environment around us has a powerful influence on the decisions that we produce and the views that we as American citizens choose to hold. After a semester in political science class my views and my political ideology have altered. Today I will explain how political science class has influenced my political ideology.
The rationale to reject state responsibility for welfare included; 1) that the welfare state had been “captured” by interest groups (Mendes 2008: 51); 2) that the laws maintaining minimum wages prevents access to jobs for less-skilled and more disadvantaged workers (Mendes 2008: 54); 3) that state welfare programs encourage ‘welfare dependency’ and inhibits self-reliance (Mendes 2008: 54); the notion of mutual obligation (Mendes 2008: 57); and the possibility of private charitable welfare (Mendes 2008: 59). By supposedly protecting people from the cradle to the grave, the ‘passive welfare’ offered by the Keynesian ‘nanny-state’ was thought by neoliberals to undermine the self-reliance and freedom of the individual. The ‘privatisation of responsibility’ can be considered the central principle around which the new moral economy of welfare would revolve (Rogers 2000: 3). In this senses, the individual, rather than society, was assigned the obligation of providing their personal welfare needs in the future (Rogers 2000:
Upon entering my first semester at Southern Nazarene University I could not have told you my political ideology. I knew what my opinions, observations, expectations, and ideals were, but did not know the proper ideology that would define them. Through several courses that I have taken, I have become more informed as to the role that I would like to see the government take throughout society as a whole and in the economy. Upon reading the section of ideology in American Government and Politics Today: the Essentials I learned that the correct term for my ideology is right-wing Conservatism. I would like to see the government take action if necessary in the economy, yet let
Social democracy is focused on gradual changes. Social democrats typically deem intervention as a way to benefit lower classes to create a more equitable society, intervention does this by constraining markets and engaging in redistributive efforts. Scenario one is an example of this by being characterized by small scale, local projects to improve the quality of life in dispersed communities. It also proves to be liberal by focusing on government funded Health, education, housing and jobs in a way to help disadvantaged and create equality. Additionally, by favoring environmental regulations, which scenario one has plenty of. For example: land, soil, and water preserved from degradation due to low intensity energy projects that recycle wastes.
Political ideologies are the beliefs, morals and ethics held on what is the optimum way of governing a country (Jost, Federico, & Napier, 2009). They have long guided the elected governments behaviour, particularly in effect to Social Policy decisions; determining what policy initiatives will be elected and what is the best way of implementing such policies. New Zealand has had various political ideologies brought in by different governments; such as Social Democracy, Social Liberalism, Neo liberalism, Neo Conservatism and Conservatism. For the basis of this Essay, the focus will be on two of the most significant influences; Social Democracy and Conservatism. Both ideologies have had period 's of dominance in New Zealand 's Social policy history where they have impacted the general functioning of society. Their view of the state, and general morals have been strongly reflected in the policy initiatives there exponents have brought in. For Social Democracy, it being the 1938 Social Security Act and the various implementations of Keynesian Economic Management in the 1940s and 1980s; and for Conservatism, the Pensions for miners and returned servicemen, and the introduction of private prisons. The both having considerable impact not only on New Zealand society but the development of more progressive forms of political ideology. It will be argued that the resulting policies from the Social Democracy and Conservatism ideologies most notable influence is
(New Zealand Government, 2015, para. 1). Prime Minister John Key, the main advocate for change, officially launched such discussion last year in a public address he gave at Victoria’s University in Wellington. One of the main points presented in Key’s (2014) speech were his views on how he believes Moreover Key (2014) also argued (para. 88). So far the Prime Ministers proposal failed to inspire the public. On the contrary, it has produced a substantial amount of controversy. The main arguments seem to revolt around the issues of cost, process, national symbol, history and change. This paper will look more closely into each of these aforementioned public differences and close with my own view concerning this debate.