Immunology Exam 6 Chapters 11 And 12 Study Guide Essay

2674 WordsJan 27, 201511 Pages
PCB Fall 14 Study guide Chapter 11 1) Which T-cells decline in an HIV patient? What is the significant # of those cells for a transition to AIDs? a. Massive reduction in CD4 T cells b. Less than 200 CD4 T cells per ul. c. HIV doesn't kill patient but cell mediated immunity is compromised and patient can die from infection 2) Know gp 120 and 41 and what they do? What is the precursor polypeptide these are created from? a. One nucleocapsid protein is a protease used to cleave gp41 and gp120 envelope glycoproteins from a larger precursosr protein. b. cleave a large precursor polyprotein (protein gp160) c. binding and fusion of HIV into target cell takes place by interaction with 2 membrane glycoproteins (GP) i. gp120- binding ii.…show more content…
What does it do? What leukocyte(s)/cytokine(s) are involved? a. Superantigens stimulated a massive by ineffective T-cell response b. Toxins that bind to sites shared by many different TCRs. c. Capable of stimulating an excessive polyclonal response that involves 2-20% of toat# CD4 T cells in circulation. After proliferation T-cells with bound superantigen die by apoptosis, removing many memory T-cells d. Massive T cells response to certain pathogen toxins iscalled superantigens e. Toxic shock syndromemassive cytokine release IL-1, IL-2, TNF-a f. Antigen bridges MHC class II and TCRs 11) What are Antigenic shift and drift? Which one is worse? What disease state are these associated with? a. Antigenic drift- Influenza epidemic i. Evolution of influenza where changes cause mild and limited epidemics ii. Because these changes are small (usually arise from point mutations) there will still be come cross-reaction with antibodies and T cells produced to the previous variant- provides some level of protection. b. Antigenic shift i. Pandemic ii. Severe iii. Avian origin creates a very different strain iv. Happens every 10-50 years, and influenza virus emerges that is structurally different. v. Occurs most often in farmers close to live stock. Virus arise in pigs that become simultaneously infected with both avian and human viruses. vi. Recombinant jumps back into human population with big competitive advantage. vii. Recombinant virus mode of

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