Immunology

666 Words Apr 9th, 2015 3 Pages
INNATE AND ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY:
Compare and Contrast the Biological Processes Underlying Innate and Adaptive Immunity
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Compare and Contrast the Biological Processes Underlying Innate and Adaptive Immunity

In the biology Immunology field, immunity is defined as the balanced state of a living organism for instance, the human body having sufficient biological defenses to combat infection, illness, or other unwanted biological incursion, while having acceptable tolerance to avoid contamination and allergies (Sompayrac, 2012, p.5). The immune system is a group of cells, nerves, and molecules that defend the body from many pathogenic microorganisms and contaminants in the environment.
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For instance, the adaptive immune classification is organized around a binary class of cells, namely the T and B cells, whereas the cells of the innate immune classification are considerably more in number, comprising natural killer cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages (Pulendran, Katsikis, & Schoenberger, 2011, p. 12).
Further differences can be seen from the immune system receptors. The receptors of innate classification cells are completely germline encoded, in other words, their structure is controlled by the genome of the cell and has a permanent genetically determined specificity. On the other hand, adaptive immune classification cells have semantically engendered variable-region receptors such as the TCR and BCR, which are T, and B cell receptors with variable specificities, fashioned by a complex procedure of gene segment reorganization within the cell (Pulendran, Katsikis, &Schoenberger, 2011, p. 13).
Additionally, another difference is on a population level. Various studies such as ‘the conceptual framework for innate immunity’ highlight that innate immune classification cells have a non-clonal distribution of receptors, suggesting that all cells of an identical sort and have receptors with matching specificities. However, receptors on adaptive immune classification cells are dispersed clonally in a pattern that are suppurations of a specific clone