Immunotherapy: Genetically Engineered T-Cells

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Cancer is defined as a category of diseases that consist of cells in the human body dividing at an unstoppable rate and result in spreading to surrounding tissue creating tumors. Cancer affects approximately 14 million people and result in 8.2 million deaths as of 2012. However, researches continue to try and develop many kinds of treatments for cancer patients and aim to find a cure for this monstrous disease. Immunotherapy is one of the treatment options that involve the use of chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) T-cells to attack and destroy the cancer cells. The process of Immunotherapy began in 1976 as a method to create a vaccine using cowpox to prevent smallpox. However, the use of immunotherapy as a treatment for cancer patients began…show more content…
The blood is then treated using a viral solution that consists of viral traces of the virus such as HIV.As the T-cells have been treated using the solution, the cells infected express their receptors and the DNA is then Tran scripted into RNA and express proteins. The T-cells are then genetically engineered to identify cancer cells and destroy them upon sight. The engineered CAR T-cells are then transferred back into the patient. As the engineered T-cells are reintroduced into the body, they begin to patrol the human body and search for the Cancer…show more content…
During adoptive cell transfer, T-cells also release cytokines that contribute to maintain control of the immune system. However, the mass amount of T-cells fighting the cancer cells result in a mass amount of cytokine being released. The mass amount of cytokine is known as a cytokine storm and result in damaging the organs and lead to possible death. Another complication that has occurred is the possibility of genetically engineered T-cells result in attacking both cancer cells as well as the human body. The engineered T-cells could also result in destroying B cells that are responsible for producing antibodies. The B cells would become cancerous and the T-cells are then attacking the B cells. The diminishing amount of B cells would result in minimal amounts of antibodies being
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