Impact Of Industrialisation On Patterns Of Urban Development

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The impact of industrialisation on patterns of urban development in nineteenth century Europe

Urbanization is defined as an omnipresent process during which a primary and rural society revolves gradually into a cultivated and industrious one. The linkage between industrialization and urban growth defies an explicit description it is tight and visible, but cannot be simply reduced to direct linearity. It is well known that many small African countries have initiated or accomplished low-level urbanization without economic growth. Roughly without industrial revolution, a few cities such as Italy and Netherlands had their urban dweller proportion raised. Switzerland, Germany, England and France had the similar phenomena.

Precious long
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During the proto-industrial development phase, production burgeoned in various villages and cottages near towns or commercial centers, which were fully packed with rural industrial workers. Nevertheless, shortages of investment in services and administration precluded those regions from turning into giant cities. Urban growth during this period depended highly on physical power such as transportation artery, mine and waterfalls and so forth.

During the process of the coal-based expansion, the larger-scale production spurred by combination of technology and coal, had exerted much more influence upon urbanization than the former phase. Massive capital poured into coal-based settlements with the very intention to accelerate the urban growth. Yet production cost, expensive raw materials, low efficiency and political concerns impeded the whole process to a large extent.

Not until the emergence of the second industrial revolution had the western and central Europe experienced an authentic convergence of industrial production and urban growth. London, the leader, together with Vienna, Berlin and Paris exploded in population and size during this period (Hohenberg et al., 1985). Economy of scale required continuous pooling of capital, employment and materials. Led by the Great Britain, the main European powers, such as France and Germany, all went through the
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