Culture is an observable, powerful force in any organization. “Made up of its members’ shared values, beliefs, symbols, and behaviors, culture guides individual decisions and actions at the unconscious level. As a result, it can have a potent effect on a company’s well-being and success” (One Page, n.d.).
The main topic of this chapter is stereotypes specifically about masculinity and femininity. A historical perspective called The Cult of True Womanhood, which meant a woman should be devout, unstained, obedient and well behaved. However, men could practically be the opposite of the women and yet be depicted as inferior to men. In addition, another historical view presented is Male Gender Role Identity in which a man could be prosperous by being tough, suppressing emotions, avoiding feminine actions and passions. Furthermore, a psychological test that was performed was the Attitude Interest Analysis Survey in which resulted in masculinity and femininity as complete opposites. For example, men are tough and independent, whereas women are weak and dependent.
Firstly, learning may influence work attitudes and ethics. For instance, work commitment and ethics are the backbones of a particular culture.
Meanwhile in collective societies they prioritise their decisions for good of the group above their own personal goals. In a business context collective societies will work better in groups with people they have a personal relationship with. While individualist societies can work well as individuals and in groups with people they do not know. This allows for quicker decision making but not knowing a colleague on a personal level may lead to less active participation. Collective mentality takes more time but more options are analysed in more depth which in some circumstances is more effective but less time efficient.
Masculinity (MAS) versus its opposite, femininity, refers to the distribution of roles between the genders which is another fundamental issue for any society to which a range of solutions are found. The IBM studies revealed that (a) women 's values differ less among societies than men 's values; (b) men 's values from one country to another contain a dimension from very assertive and competitive and maximally different from women 's
Hofstede uses the words masculinity and femininity to refer to the degree to which masculine or feminine traits are valued or revealed (Samovar, Porter and McDaniel). The United States rates as a moderately masculine. Countries that favor masculinity stress equity, competition, and performance(Yates). They also strive for material success and expected to respect whatever is big, strong, and fast. France values femininity and stress equality, solidarity, and quality of work life (Yates). A feminine worldview maintains that men can assume nurturing roles while promoting sexual equality. One major difference in masculine/feminine cultures is the role of the woman in the workplace and at home. Feminine societies expect women to work and often provide the necessary social support systems. Although the United States is more masculine than France both countries treat females as equals.
Masculinity -Femininity from Professor Geert Hofstede for the most part portray achievement is respected by somebody's accomplishment or gallantry in Masculinity society, while in Femininity society, individuals tend to treat each other similarly and care other people who are weaker and appear to concentrate on personal satisfaction. Educator Geert Hofstede guided one of incomparable abundant investigations of how values in the work environment are partial by culture. A Feminine society is one where individual fulfilment is the sign of advance and rising up out of the gathering is not astonishing. Australia scores 61 on this estimation compared to Sri Lanka just got 10 score it seen as a "Masculine" society. A high score (Masculinity) on this
Masculinity is a social construct based on a hierarchical system of gendered difference and dominance. It is used to assume a primal and essential difference between male bodies and female bodies, through a binary organisational system that assigns physical, emotional, and behavioural characteristics to people according to what is regarded as masculine and feminine. The construct of gender plays a significant role in our lives, shaping our identities and experiences of the world. Gender assignment is one of the first ways we become socialised in the world, leading us to present ourselves in specific ways and perform our respective genders
Collectivism is a political practice that takes away the freedom and welfare of an individual to prioritize the goodness of everyone as a society. To be in a Collectivist society, means that everyone has to put their own morals aside and focus on the equality and morality for everyone as a community. To the average human mind, living in a system where everyone works as a group will not seem to be that out of the ordinary. What people don’t tend to perceive is that a system where people can’t think of themselves is a system that will be corrupt in the long run. In this degenerate organization, every idea must fit the benefit for all of society. If the idea doesn’t make for the better for everyone, then it will not be permitted at all. All personal
Masculinity culture represents a preference towards high achievement, assertiveness, and material rewards for success which display similar characteristic of men. Society is largely more competitive. Countries with masculinity culture such as Japan and Mexico value assertiveness and competitiveness. U.S. is also somewhat a masculine society where individuals highly focus on achievement, strike for success and are motivated by opportunities. IBM’s studies revealed that (1) women’s values are less concerned among societies than men’s values; (2) men’s values from one country to another have a dimension of assertive and competitive that are different from women’s values that are modest and caring. Germany scored a 66 and U.S. scored a 62 on masculine
Masculinity-femininity measurement is tended to as a society, not an individual's trademark and alludes to the conveyance of qualities between the sexual orientation. Masculinity is the inverse of femininity; together, they form one of the measurements of national societies. The Masculinity side of this dimension represents a preference in society for achievement, heroism, assertiveness and material rewards for success. Society at large is more competitive (Geert-hofstede.com, 2010). Masculine cultures have a tendency to be goal-oriented and need to exceed expectations. In masculine societies, men are relied upon to be competitive. A society is called feminine when there is not a solid separation between the sexual orientations for passionate
No matter where you go in the world, gender is always constructed in two ways: Feminine and Masculine. Woman are seen as feminine and submissive, while men are known to be masculine and dominant. Socially femininity meant being: “girly”, frail, a woman, caring etc. While being masculine meant the opposite. Strong, man, hardworking, tough. That’s what we as a society see masculinity. But who can show masculinity? Why can people only show masculinity because of their gender? What will happen if they don’t hold enough masculinity that the public want? Article we were given in class will provide some insight to these questions.
In this report I will be stating the differences of how Tesco function in South Korea compared to how they function in the United Kingdom. Tesco have to adapt to the local culture, traditions and tastes and have to recreate an environment in which shoppers will feel at home.
The world average for the Masculinity Dimension is 50, with both the United States and Australia having a higher ranking. Traits associated with masculinity are assertiveness, material success, and individual achievement. The female population has adapted these traits and begun to shift toward a more traditional male role, with an increasing number of women continuing to enter the workforce. The direct communication style of the United States illustrates the masculine traits. The U.S. places heavy emphasis on getting their point across rather than getting to know those they are doing business with. This dimension is closely related to both countries’ rankings in the individuality dimension.
According to the works of Chaney & Martin (2011) and Harris & Moran (2000), they agree that international management skills are in need for the increasing scope of international trades and investments. A large number of multinational companies have expanded their businesses through both developed and developing countries. Some of the business invest directly and others are partnership arrangements and strategic alliances with domestic operations. Their studies show that independent entrepreneurs and small businesses have started investing and competing in the world marketplace. Thus, to acquire corporations’ objectives, there is exceedingly a necessity for the development of strategic framework for cross-cultural management and communication in the current competitive global market. Chaney & Martin (2011) also noted that, cultural awareness and cultural differences are strongly important to the multinational corporations’ success. A good understanding of the culture where business is implemented can make international managers productive and effective.