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Importance Of Substitution And Elimination Reactions

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Substitution and Elimination Reactions Substitution reactions replace a functional group with a new group. These reactions compete with elimination reactions in which a group is eliminated and a π (pi) bond is formed. Substitution reactions occur when a nucleophile is added to an electrophile/substrate. Elimination reactions occur when a base is added to an electrophile/substrate. The electrophile must contain a leaving group to be considered a substrate. Alkyl Halides Alkyl Halides are the common substrate used in substitution and elimination reactions. Alkyl Halides are halogen containing alkane compounds. These compounds are commonly used as the electrophile in substitution reactions. Naming Alkyl Halides is similar to naming alkanes. Halogen substituents are named just like alkane substituents, for example if there is a chlorine attached to an ethane the chlorine substituent will be named using the word chloro-. The other halogens are named using the words flouro-, bromo-, and iodo- respectively. These possible substituents are listed alphabetically along with the alkane substituents. When dealing with alkyl halides it is important to note that the carbons attached to the halogens and the carbons attached to those carbons are involved in the reaction process, therefore we designate these carbons with special symbols to differentiate them from the rest of the molecule. The carbon atom that is bonded to the halogen is designated the α (alpha) carbon. The carbons that are
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