Improving Access:. I Will Examine Two Of The Most Prominent

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Improving Access:
I will examine two of the most prominent methods for improving access: universal early childhood education and equivalency/second chance programs for adults. One of the other prominent methods is improving access through information and communication technologies (ICTs). This is a popular idea as remote areas often lack formal and non-formal literacy programs. In these situations, education through technology like television, radio, and the internet is believed to be able to play an important role in improving access. However, recent research has shown that ICTs should not be the sole means of literacy learning as many countries lack the necessary infrastructure and would be better off funding schools and teachers.
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The success of MENA countries clearly shows that investing in early childhood education is an effective and efficient method of improving literacy. Moreover, Hanemann (2006) found that increased funding on primary education resulting from UN Millennium Development Goals has increased global attendance and eliminated the gender gap.

However, there are limits to the reach and timeliness of early childhood education. First, children in the poorest quintile are still three times as likely to be out of school than those in the richest quintile (Richmond, 2008). Research has shown that access itself is not a guarantee of literacy. Completion of five to six years is a critical threshold for mastery of basic competencies such as literacy. However, the poor are often unable to attend for this length of time for various reasons, leading to completion rates 10-60% below enrollment rates (The Global Challenge of Education for All, 2002). On top of this, by definition, early childhood education cannot reach the 800 million illiterate adults. As a result, the best case scenario of funding universal childhood education will not eliminate illiteracy for a couple of generations.

Moreover, to achieve universal primary education requires programs to work with local governments as they are the main providers of education. The governments will always be happy to take additional funding, but the programs then lose
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