In a Written Paper of 1,200-1,500 Words, Apply the Concepts of Epidemiology and Nursing Research to a Communicable Disease.

1408 Words May 31st, 2016 6 Pages
Influenza

Introduction
Influenza is among the most prevalent infectious airborne viral diseases that affect the respiratory system. According to the World Health Organization (2016), the infection majorly affects the throat, nose, and the bronchi, and on rare occasions, it may affect the lungs. Also commonly known as the flu, influenza infection is characterized by sneezing, itchy and running nose as well as throat inflammation. The initial signs and symptoms include fever with temperatures higher that 100F, soreness in the back, myalgia, legs and arm muscles, sweats and chills, frontal or retro-orbital headaches, tachycardia, red, watery eyes, and fatigue. Sometimes, a dry and persistent cough, nasal congestion and discharge occur
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The standard diagnostic procedure of Influenza A and B involves a viral culture of the throat or nasopharyngeal specimens. Nevertheless, chest radiography should perform on high-risk patients like the elderly to rule out the presence of pneumonia (Clark & Lynch, 2011).
Management (Prevention and Treatment)
The most efficient Influenza management strategy is prevention. The medical systems in most countries provide influenza A and B vaccines annually before the onset of flu seasons. Usually, the flu vaccine is trivalent; protecting the recipients from the three influenza virus subtypes namely; A-H1, A-H3, and B. However, in 2012, a quadrivalent vaccine was developed and availed for use in 2013. This vaccine covers a second variety of the B subtype in addition to the ones covered by the traditional vaccine. Besides, an H5N1 flu shot has been approved by FDA and availed to government agencies (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016). Apart from vaccination, influenza transmission can be minimized by observing public health measures such as reporting and isolating infected individuals by providing home such leaves and treatment.
Usually, most flu patients recover without any medical intervention within 7 to 14 days. However, the high-risk groups like the young, the elderly and immunocompromised individuals require medical intervention to prevent the occurrence of other complications.

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