In recent years, the design and the fabrication of satisfactory air monitoring systems have been a

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In recent years, the design and the fabrication of satisfactory air monitoring systems have been a focus of attention in growing reports of health diseases allied to poor atmospheric quality levels [1-9]. Identify pollutants in the air and defining polluted locations adopting an air monitoring system is paramount as the preliminary process of standard air-quality improvement techniques (e.g. improved ventilation, air cleaning and air sanitation ) [10,11]. At the same time recent advances in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), electrochemical gas sensors and wireless sensor network (WSN) technology have allowed the creation of a low-power, low-cost air pollutant monitoring system and its placement in real environments [12-24].…show more content…
Given this scenario, battery characteristics such as self-discharge, or lifetime, are reasonably more important than energy density or capacity and size. The adoption of a “set and forget” approach in this wireless sensor platform definitely results in the energy accessible to the system being bounded by the starting energy capacity of the battery together with the unforeseeable lifetime characteristics of the battery. The above mentioned effort has driven the development of methods to maximize wireless sensor system lifetime over minimizing energy consumption by adopting ultra-low power electronics (i.e. ultra-low power microcontroller with sleep current around 100 nA), virtually no power consumption sensors (e.g. electrochemical sensors connected to signal conditioning electronics with supply current around 1uA) and wireless communications with the use of duty cycling based on long sleep times (i.e. the device remains in low power “SLEEP” mode for more than 95% of the time). Hence the sensorized node will be operative only for the time needed to achieve the operations of sensor warm-up, sampling, data processing and wireless data transmission or communication. Duty-cycled operations imply approaching energy utilization energy utilization in joules ruther than consumption in watts. In this “set and forget” scenario we are concerned with the endurance of the power system

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