With reference to organisations or industries that you know, to what extent do you think that recent changes in the UK economy will have inevitably damaged the long-term profits of businesses that operate in this country? (40 marks)
The largest cause of unemployment can be attributed to recession. The term recession refers to the backward movement of the economy for a long period. People spend only when they have to. (Nagle 2009). With people spending less there would be less money in circulation therefore, enterprises would suffer financially and people would suffer too. This is so because recession reduces the fiscal bases of enterprises, forcing these enterprises to reduce their workforce through layoffs. These enterprises lay off their workers in order to cut the costs they incur in terms of wage and salary payments.
Consequently, Keynes brought clarity to the subject of the Great Depression and unemployment, his argument suggested that unemployment may not be a temporary condition that the system could naturally recover. Keynes believed that unemployment could in fact reach equilibrium. In this article the Depression was seen as a condition of unemployment brought about a
In an economic depression unemployment rates and decrease in the flow of money into the economy. Thorpe Park will find it exceedingly difficult to earn profits. As a result they reduce their staffs that lead to unemployment. But they only hire seasonal staff who only work 9 months of the year so employees will become unemployed at the end of the 9 months every year.
The changing composition of employment relates to the change in the structure of the workforce. Job growth has become generally greater in those segments of the labour force with relatively low levels of trade union membership, and a contraction of employment among the more highly unionised segments of the labour force (Healey, 1995). Most of the employment growth that occurred in the 80’s and 90’s was confined to the private sector whose union density was considerably lower to that of the public sector. In addition to that, the constant decline in the manufacturing industries, where unionisation is high, compared to
Beginning with unemployment in the 2007-2009 recession, U.S. unemployment rates peaked at 10% as well as held 41 consecutive months at rates higher than eight percent (Lazear 1). The U.S. economy plummeted during this time; many attributed the shift to a large decrease in the number of employed workers. To be able to better understand the unemployment issue, we must first examine the form of unemployment faced by the U.S. economy. Many believe that the changes faced by the U.S. labor market
With new technological advances in machinery the average production of a miner is at a continual rise while the employment of the miners is at a downfall.
Since the early 2000’s the unemployment rates of the United States have been constantly changing. For most of this time unemployment rates were increasing at a quick pace as the country was dealing with internal financial issues of its own. When people are out of work the rates of depression and crime seem to skyrocket. This is due to the lack of funds coming into a home which result in some less than admirable acts being committed. There are many causes of unemployment and many effects that unemployment can have on not only our economy, but our personal lives as well.
When governments look at policies to reduce unemployment, they tend to look at the short term and then the long term. In the short term, they need to ensure there is sufficient demand and economic growth in the economy to help control cyclical unemployment. This is done by adopting
The United States is currently experiencing a slow recovery from the recession of 2008-09. The current unemployment rate is 7.7%, which is the lowest level since December of 2008 (BLS, 2012). However, this rate is believed to higher than the rate that would occur if the economy was operating at peak efficiency, and it is also believed that there are structural issues still underpinning this performance. For example, the number of Americans who have exited the work force as the result of prolonged unemployment is believed to be higher than usual. In addition, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO, 2012) notes that long-term unemployment of greater than 26 weeks is at a much higher rate than normal, which will have adverse long-run effects on the economy, since workers with long-term unemployment often find their career paths derailed.
Structural unemployment may occur in the short term with the removal of trade barriers. This will have impact on large numbers of workers, as well as their families and local economies. In growth industries workers often will have difficulties to find employment.
The debate about the relationship between inflation and unemployment is mainly based on the famous “Phillips Curve”. This curve was first discovered by a New Zealand born economist called Allan William Phillips. In 1958, A. W. Phillips published an article “The relationship between unemployment and the rate of change of money wages in the United Kingdom, 1861-1957”, in which he showed a negative correlation between inflation and unemployment (Phillips 1958). When the unemployment rate is low, the inflation rate tends to be high, and when unemployment is high, the inflation rate tends to be low, even to be negative.
As non-European companies raised the standard of competition, the prices likewise fell and the market for many European products collapsed. This directly affected the employment rate throughout Europe in many of the industries, as many jobs were no longer needed. As this need declined, labor began to demand the retention of jobs, wages, and benefits, making labor more costly (Drouin,12). The unemployment rate in Europe went from 4-5% in the 1950-60s to 10-12% during the 1970-80s (Dr. Shearer - lecture). For example, after World War II the mining workforce in the UK fell from 718,000 to 43,000, with the majority of the jobs lost during 1975-85 (Judt, 459). The steel industry also suffered. As non-European countries entered the market, the European steel industry collapsed. For example, British steelworkers lost 166,000 jobs between 1974-1986 (Judt, 459). As unemployment increased throughout Western Europe, there was a movement towards the service sector.
Money is essential to any individual looking to have a decent lifestyle; labor is the avenue through which this is acquired. The economy goes through various fluctuations in activity causing unemployment to fall, rise, or level out. What this creates is the first type of unemployment, known as cyclical; frictional is the second type, caused by a temporary leave (for whatever reason) by the employee, and structural is the third type, varying with the economic changes in demand. The absence of unemployment at its maximum level is termed full employment, another version of unemployment. The term encompassing the sum of the frictional, structural, and, yet another type of unemployment, surplus unemployment is that of the natural rate of