Indian Economist and Philosopher, Amartya Sen' View of Justice

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Sen mentions that there are two basic views to justice - one is the ‘arrangement-focused’ approach to justice and the other is ‘realization-focused’ approach to justice. In order to contrast both the approaches, Sen uses two Sanskrit words – niti and nyaya- both these words mean justice. Although the definition of the words is similar, they represent different perceptions of justice. Niti, on one hand focuses on organized institutions and appropriate behaviors in society. Basically, we think about proper procedures and rules when it comes to niti, which is very much the ‘arrangement-focused’ approach to justice. Nyaya, on the other hand is more comprehensive and involves the emerging of a more profound perspective based on the roles of organizations and rules. Nyaya is the ‘realization-focused’ approach to justice, which means that one has to see beyond niti and look at the bigger picture of an issue or scenario. This makes niti more superficial relative to nyaya and one may even imagine niti as a subset of nyaya. Despite niti and nyaya representing different views of justice, it is undeniable that both views equally important. The distinction between niti and nyaya can be made through current issues, such as poverty due to minimum wage. Those who see justice in terms of niti would come up with the ideal wage rates and worker’s welfare in order to create an effective institution. This way, value is created within an institution through policies implementation; niti is more

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