Indian Reorganization Act of 1934

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The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, also known as the Wheeler Howard Act or the IRA, had a major impact on the everyday lives of Native American Tribes that were scattered across the United states. The Indian Reorganization Act provided the means and tools for tribes to form their own governments and constitutions. The IRA stopped the general allotment act that was put into effect by the Dawes of 1887. The Indian Reorganization Act granted the Secretary of Interior a tremendous amount of power over Native American affairs ranging from land, livestock, employment, government, etc. According to the reorganization plan, after a tribe or nation voted to accept the IRA, it would draw up a constitution and bylaws, submit it to a referendum,…show more content…
John Collier's two aims under the Indian New Deal, on the other hand, were (1) to preserve the Indian people as a "race" and as distinct cultures, which Collier termed "grouphood," and (2) to preserve and develop resources, including land. The means to achieve these goals for Collier were "tribal" organization and economic incorporation under the IRA. For traditional Indians, however, the means to their goals is for the United States to return to the treaty relationship (treaty federalism) and to recognize the Indian peoples as sovereign with the right to self-determination (Talbot, 2011).
The negative effects from the IRA that are criticized by non-Native Americans are the fact that it remained paternalistic. The Indian Reorganization Act did not let tribes across the United States form their own governments that would be independent and possibly free from jurisdiction. The IRA called for the all the tribes that are under the law to be supervised by the Bureau of Indian affairs (or as people call it the BIA). In many cases this is why some people rejected the law on reservations and saw it as another ones of the United States tactics to subjugate power or government upon the Native Americans.
Some of the positive effects from a non-Native American point of view is the IRA created a “messy” legal situation that has to with the Native
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