Indo-English Women Poetry: A Journey From Feminism to Post-Feminism

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Indo-English poetry began to be written and until rather recently continued to be written under the influence of the English romantic poets such as Wordsworth, Coleridge, Shelley, Keats, Byron and even Walter Scott. The poetry of the period is marked by a highly subjective tone and uninhibited expression of personal feeling. Also, nature and its variegated scenes form a background, especially nature in its natural untamed manifestations. Witness for example these lines from Toru Dutt’s (1856-1877) poem “Sindhu”, where she presents a beautiful description of the sunset on an Indian lake: Upon the glassy surface fell The last beams of the day, Like fiery darts, that lengthening swells, As breezes wake and play Osiers and willows and on…show more content…
Women were kept under the control of men. There was hardly a voice of protest against the dominated society. Margret Macnicol expresses a little agony and irritation of this Kannada woman, Honnama against man’s foolishly humiliation over woman. She says in “The value of woman”: “The mother who brought them forth (blind fools), is she not a woman? Alas, why do short-sighted fool forth ridicule, crying, “Woman, woman” (Chavan 1984:7). In a traditional set up in India, the birth of a son has been always an occasion for celebration but a girl child is considered to be an apprehension of the ensuing sufferings and misery for the family. Beauvoir (1908 – 1986) says: “As a child a girl identifies herself with her father, then she becomes possessed with a feeling of inferiority with reference to the male and is faced with a dilemma; either to assert her independence and become virilized-which, with the underlying complex of inferiority induces a state of tension that threatens neurosis-or to find happy fulfilment in amorous submission”(beauvoir 1952:75). In India, a woman is always considered as an embodiment of muted or not listened to. Women’s identity is seen through her husband, she becomes an object for men’s ownership and sexual gratification. In the nineteenth century, many social reforms like Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833), Rama Bai Ranade (1862-1924), Pandita Rama Bai (1858-1922), and Jyotirao Phule (1827-1890) etc. came forward to fight for the
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