Indp 2

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Transmission Control Protocols or TCP is among the key methods utilized in Internet Protocol Suites. TCP has got two end systems, a web browser and a web server from which it operates. TCP provides delivery of a stream of bytes from a program on one computer system to another. Internet Protocols operate at a lower level compared to TCP. An IP is used for data transmission across a packet switched internetwork. In X on and X off signals, the X means transmitter. These types of signals are used to manage the movement of data between computer systems on an asynchronous serial connection. In X on, the bit configuration is the keyboard blend of Ctrl-Q and the Ctrl-S combination is for X off. There are two kinds of transmissions, parallel as…show more content…
As discussed in Chapter 3, the connectionless environment (which includes X.25 networks, the public Internet, private IP-based backbones, and LANs) can be likened to the postal service, in which a message is relayed from point to point, with each relay getting one step closer to its ultimate destination. In a connectionless environment, each packet of a message is an independent unit that contains the source and destination address. Each packet is independently routed at each intermediate node it crosses. The more hops it goes through, the greater the accumulated delays, which greatly affects delay-sensitive applications, including any form of real-time voice, real-time audio, real-time video, video-on-demand, and streaming media. But connectionless environments can work around problems, which is why they were so strong in the early days, when there were frequent system failures and links that were too noisy to perform correctly. Connectionless packets could circumvent system failures or noisy conditions and still meet at the destination point with high integrity. The connectionless environment offered the flexibility of routing around problem areas, but at the risk of greater overhead associated with the overall transmission because addressing had to be included in each packet, and also at the risk of greater delays because each packet had to be independently routed. Features of IP IP was designed to work in the LAN world. It is a

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