Inductive & Deductive Research

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INDUCTIVE & DEDUCTIVE RESEARCH APPROACH
Meritorious Prof. Dr. S. M. Aqil Burney
Director UBIT Chairman
Department of Computer Science University of Karachi

burney@computer.org www.drburney.net
Designed and Assisted by

Hussain Saleem hussainsaleem@uok.edu.pk 06th March 2008

"Well begun is half done"
--Aristotle, quoting an old proverb

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Research Methods
In research, we often refer to the two broad methods of reasoning as the deductive and inductive approaches.

Research Types

Deductive Approach

Inductive Approach
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Deductive Research Approach
THEORY

HYPOTHESIS

OBSERVATION

Deductive reasoning works from the more general to the more specific. Sometimes this is informally called a "top-down"
…show more content…
PP 61-75 61 CS/IT”

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Reasoning methods and Argumentation
The main division between forms of reasoning that is made in philosophy is between deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning. Formal logic has been described as 'the science of deduction '. The study of inductive reasoning is generally carried out within the field known as informal logic or critical thinking.
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http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/cdic-mcc/18-3/d_e.html 11

Automated Reasoning

• Logic lends itself to automation. • A variety of problems can be attacked by representing the problem description and relevant background information as logical axioms and treating problem instances as theorems to be proved.
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Logic and Reasoning
Reasoning

Using given knowledge and truth value help us to solve, understand real life problems.

Logical Reasoning

Probabilistic Reasoning

Bayesian Networks

Subjective

Objective

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EXAMPLE
• • •

p: All mathematicians wear glasses q: Anyone who wears glasses is an algebraist r: All mathematicians are algebraist

p∧q → r ≡ ( ∼( p∧q) ∨ r)

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TRUTH TABLE
Truth Table for the formulae built with the Logical Operators

p T T T T F F F F

q T T F F T T F F

r T F T F T F T F

pΛq ~(pΛq) ~(pΛq)Vr Λ Λ Λ T F T T F F F T T F T T F T T F T T F T T F T T
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If r is the conclusion, and we know that p and q are true simultaneously then r is valid statement. In real life, the
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