Infectious Diseases : New Infectious Disease

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Topic B: New Diseases
Throughout history, the emergence of infectious diseases has led to a proliferation of control treatments. Despite successful control methods, the recurring emergence of both new and old infectious diseases has preserved human mortality (Schrag & Wiener 1995, p. 319). It is the globalisation of such infections that traverse, the single appearance of a disease, to the entire world within a limited time span. The definition of emerging infections according to Schwartz and Yogev ( 1996, p. 226) (in the institute of medicine in a 1992 report) is “diseases of infectious origin whose incidence in humans has increased within the past two decades or threatens to increase in the near future”. Newly emerging infections, however, confine the definition to newly identified infections that have recently appeared in the populace or geographical location (Morse 2001, p. 1). While, the origin of new infectious disease epidemics may be inexplicable, it is apparent that specific factors influence the fluctuation of incidences. These factors are interrelated, often through human facilitation, thus the question becomes “Do humans have a higher susceptibility to newly emerging infections?”
The world populace is continuously expanding in size, with an increase of infants proportionate to the elderly persons (Lashley 2004, p. 301). Both infants and elderly people are highly susceptible to emerging infectious diseases due to the degree of immunosupression, the partial or
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