This is due to the way their bodies suffer from insulin resistance which causes an increase in weight gain. Researchers discovered that “hepatic insulin resistance, characterized by both increased post absorptive glucose production and reduced sensitivity to insulin mediated suppression of endogenous glucose production, is present only in obese women with PCOS compared to control women of comparable body weight” (Sam, 2007). So, a woman whose body that cannot process insulin properly or produces to much insulin runs the risk of obesity and increases their chance of having PCOS.
Ovulation issues in women are the most common factor in female infertility (Davis, 2013). Without ovulation there are no eggs produced, therefore, nothing can be fertilized. Ovulation problems such as polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), is a hormone imbalance problem which can disrupt normal ovulation (Davis, 2013). Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) may also occur once a woman’s ovaries stop working normally before the age of 40 (Davis, 2013). Other factors include reproductive hormone imbalances, endometriosis, hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormone), blocked fallopian tubes, and anatomical abnormalities present since birth (White,
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome also known as Stein-Leventhal Syndrome, occurs in 5% to 10% of women and is one of the causes of infertility. PCOS is observed by ultrasound as a number of small cysts on a woman’s ovary, and it’s
The purpose of this paper is to discus the etiology, symptoms, diagnoses and treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome is also known as PCOS. Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrine disorder found in women of the reproductive age. First identified in 1935, polycystic ovary syndrome is diagnosed by the presence of polycystic ovaries, menstrual irregularities, and clinical or biochemical hyperandrogegism. “Symptoms of PCOS include changes in the menstrual cycle, such as: Not getting a period after you have had one or more normal ones during puberty (secondary amenorrhea), Irregular periods that may come and go, and be very light to very heavy. Other symptoms of PCOS include: Extra body hair that grows on the chest, belly, face, and around the nipples. Acne on the face, chest, or back, and skin changes, such as dark or thick skin markings and creases around the armpits, groin, neck,
I chose to write about PCOS because I myself suffer from this disease. PCOS is short for Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. PCOS is a type of disease where your ovaries fill up with follicles filled with fluid (cyst). It causes mainly infertility and type 2 diabetes. This disease is more common in women who are in the reproductive stage. Not only can it cause the infertility and type 2 diabetes, but it can also cause an irregular menstrual cycle and can cause your body to produce more of a male hormone called androgen. Some other things it may cause is depression, anxiety, high blood pressure, sleep apnea, high blood sugar and many other health problems. The cause of this disease has not been yet identified, but it is said one of the ways could be
Hyperandrogenism often presents itself in the physical form with acne, hirsutism (male-patterned hair growth), and alopecia. While insulin resistance is typically present in a patient with a higher BMI, 70% of women with PCOS have this condition, putting them at a higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes (Goodarzi et al., 2011). Other metabolic complications can occur with PCOS, including hypertension and dyslipidemia (Madnani, 2013). The hormonal secretions of the body’s endocrine glands are affected by the hormonal secretions of the ovaries and vice versa via feedback mechanisms. The disruption of normal hormone secretions, particularly hypersecretion of luteinizing hormone (LH), can reduce the chance of conception and increase the risk of miscarriage (Balen,
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among reproductive aged women, with a prevalence of 16.6-18% according to the 2003 Rotterdam criteria (1-3). Though PCOS is extremely common, up to 70% of women with the syndrome are undiagnosed (3). The PCOS diagnosis is one of ovarian dysfunction and hyperandrogenism, and as such has important implications for reproductive health (see Table 1; NIH, 2012). However, in addition to these reproductive criteria – which tend to manifest as hirsutism, infertility, and pregnancy complications – PCOS is marked by
There are many long-term consequences of PCOS. If PCOS is not properly treated there is a bigger chance of having long-term consequences. One of these consequences is type II diabetes. Women with PCOS frequently have hyperinsulinism and insulin resistance. Women who have irregular ovulation tend to have more insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is a precursor to diabetes, so PCOS patients are more at risk of developing diabetes. It is also shown that women with PCOS are more at risk of having glucose intolerance. Researchers found that women with PCOS also have an increased incidence of mortality related to diabetes complications (Nandi et al., 2014).
One of the most common hormonal endocrine disorders for females is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and affects 5-10% of all women of childbearing age (PCOS Foundation, n.d.). While the underlying cause of PCOS is still unknown, clinical features of PCOS include absent or irregular menstrual cycles, hyperandrogenism (excess androgens, particularly testosterone), and infertility (Eisenberg, 2014). In addition, PCOS is highly associated with insulin resistance and weight gain (particularly excess abdominal fat accumulation) both of which are major risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, including hypertension and hyperlipidemia (Nybacka et al., 2012). While the majority of women with PCOS are overweight or obese, obesity isn’t necessarily one of the underlying risk factors for this condition as there are many lean women with this syndrome as well (Stovall, Bailey, & Pastore, 2011).
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine condition arising from the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, presents in women of reproductive ages due to factors such as obesity, excessive insulin production and genetics. This condition often present with irregular periods, excess androgen
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), was first described in 1935 and named Stein-Levinthal syndrome after the doctors who noted the characteristic body changes and tiny cysts covering the ovaries. Although the first observation was made as early as 1721, when Italian scientist Antonio Vallisneri observed “young married peasant women, moderately obese and infertile, with two larger than normal ovaries, bumpy and shiny, whitish, just like pigeon eggs” (Kovacs, 2002). It was not until 1921 that Achard and Thiers noticed a relationship between hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance in their study of the “bearded diabetic woman” (Archard, 1921). This relationship is present in PCOS in what might be called the “hirsute hyperinsulinemic woman.” In 1935, Stein and Leventhal made the connection between amenorrhea and polycystic ovaries. In
Infertility is one of the most troubling aspects of Turner syndrome. Women with TS have trouble conceiving naturally because they are susceptible to early ovarian insufficiency. The ovaries produce estrogen, a hormone that promotes the healthy development of female sex characteristics during puberty and ensures fertility. Even with years of estrogen replacement therapy, it's rare for a woman with Turner syndrome to naturally conceive a child. This is because most women with TS have accelerated loss of eggs contained in the ovary. Fortunately, there are many options available to help a woman with TS start a family. Adoption is the most popular option for women with Turner syndrome. If you want to try for a biological child, you will likely need
Poly-cystic ovary syndrome also known as PCOS: Women who are effected with PCOS suffer from a major hormone imbalance. This imbalance is caused by the changes that occur in the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland and ovaries. Also due to the hormone imbalance PCOS is also closely associated with, abnormal hair growth, weight gain and obesity, acne and insulin resistance issues. This is the most common cause of infertility in
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a medical condition that caused by the abnormalities in the sex hormone (progesterone and estrogen) level in a woman. It is commonly associated with the reduced and infrequent menstrual flow, high BMI (Body Mass Index), and at times, subfertility. Many women suffering from PCOS may have a higher level of Luteinizing Hormone (male hormone) along with variable degrees of the Insulin resistance. PCOS may lead to the development of ovarian cysts and may conflict with the women’s cardiac function, appearance, menstrual cycle, and fertility.
Many people are challenging with infertility in the world. Among the causes, varicocele is the most common reversible cause of infertility in men. Despite the advances, the pathophysiology of infertility caused by varicocele is still under debate. Some have proposed different mechanisms such as scrotal temperature, oxidative stress, hypoxia, autoimmunity, etc. 1-3 In addition, previous studies have shown the effect of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) on semen quality in animals and humans. 4-5 Therefore, we studied the possibility of a hypothesis that seminal IGF-I may have a pathophysiological role in infertility among patients with clinical varicocele. 6