For long before the 1918 pandemic, doctors had been trying to isolate the microorganism that causes influenza. In 1892, one man, Dr. Friedrich Johann Pfeiffer, believed he had the answer. His discovery, Pfeiffer’s
In the early 1900’s medicine was making some steps closer into some great improvements for health and better understanding of the human body. Doctors with sufficient knowledge of the human body and cures for diseases and viruses were scarce. People were much more concerned with government and politics, than health and medicine, until one of the greatest and most grotesque lethal pandemics that’s struck the earth in human history. This pandemic the “Spanish Flu” spread so rapidly and had an extremely high mortality rate. This was caused by the close contact of humans and poor cleanliness and sanitation, and the host (virus) and the body taking harsh action
Walking down any given street in the year 1918 between the months of June and December, one would take notice of coffins lining the sidewalks. Nobody was on the streets, and dead bodies were stuffed into every available space. The Flu Epidemic of 1918 not only was the most devastating event of the twentieth century, but propelled the United States to search for a vaccine that has not yet been found, causing concern that the flu will strike again.
When CAP occurs, it is determined if the need for hospitalisation is necessary as it depends on the seriousness of the infection. Gram- positive organisms such as S. pneumoniae, naturally occur in the upper respiratory tract, is one cause of lower respiratory infections such as pneumonia, but is also a culprit in causing upper respiratory infections like otitis media. H. influenzae is just one of many bacterial infections that can result in CAP, it therefore can be subacute and present with a low-grade fever and a persistent cough for a few weeks before a patient has a diagnosis. Adults that have very little or no immunity are an easier target for certain viruses such as that of the Cytomegalovirus, which is a viral pathogen that is commonly contracted within the community, other common virus are adenovirus and herpes simplex. When a virus starts to become acute, it starts an infection within the ciliated cells within the airway. When pneumonia occurs from this viral infection, the inflammatory action starts to seep into the alveolar areas and leads to the problem of excess exudation and oedema within the respiratory tract. It is sometimes often difficult to differentiate symptoms of a viral pneumonia from that of bacterial pneumonia (Smeltzer &
Among the easiest ways to protect yourself from influenza every year is to get a flu vaccine regularly. So many programs exist to make it convenient and inexpensive, and more come out every year, and the consequences can be life-threatening.
What would later become one of the deadliest plagues the world had ever seen started innocuously enough in the spring of 1918 spreading through populations on both sides of the Atlantic. Remarkable for its highly infectious nature, the spring strain was relatively non-lethal, rarely killing infected individuals (Kolata, 1999). Thus little more than average attention was paid to the precursor of a virus that would eventually kill between twenty-one and one-hundred million individuals worldwide (Barry, 2004). Only after the fall wave of the 1918 influenza did it become a requirement to report cases of influenza thus information on this first wave is sporadic at best (Kolata, 1999). I will argue that the nature of this missing data combined
The influence of influenza during 1918 took a huge toll on the people of the world. They struggled as the pandemic affected nearly all parts of the world, though the different societies dealt with the issue differently due to their cultures and beliefs. When looking at a disease an important factor that comes with curing it, comes looking at where the disease begins. As a disease slowly take out the population, science and the people look for the root cause of the disease in order to control and stop it in its tracks. The world commonly sees Asia or specifically East Asia as to where most diseases and pandemics can be linked to. Rather than just blaming a specific area for the disease developing, taking a look as to how their society deals
“It killed more people in twenty-four weeks than AIDS has killed in twenty-four years, more in a year than the Black Death killed in a century. – John Barry
Illnesses have long haunted the human race. As long as these illnesses have existed, humans have developed ways to cure themselves, beginning with simple herbs and proceeding as far as vaccines and complex medicines. One cure that long eluded scientists was that of the influenza virus. Now, the influenza vaccine, or flu shot, saves thousands of lives a year and helps prevent serious complications resulting from influenza infection.
First of all, I would like to thank you for the interview. As you know, one of my main interests is to bring my extensive teaching and research experience from the advanced institutes of learning to CDC. My experience to work with HIV-1 pathogenesis at Emory University is a plus to work with influenza virus. Also, your research program complements with my research strength. My impression was of a strong program with a group of people that enjoy working with each other in an environment of camaraderie and teamwork. As we discussed during my interview, the search of a better way to prevent influenza infection is to study the mechanism of pathogenesis of infection and a lot of work yet to be done and the willingness that you and your colleagues
Streptococcus pneumoniae is found worldwide. The common host is the human body, in which it often does not cause disease but at other times it can cause diseses in particular, pneumonia. It also causes otitis media, bacteremia, meningitis, peritonitis, and sinusitis. The route by which this organism is spread is from human to human in the form of aerosol droplets. When inside the host the organism’s primary site of pneumococcal colonization is the nasopharynx. From this site it can aspire to the lungs, eventually spread to the blood and traverse the blood-brain barrier to the meninges, once inside the blood it can cause infections throughout the body. Symptoms of the disease include sudden
There is an outbreak that occurred in the United States. Many local hospitals have reported a lot of patients becoming ill with high fevers , congestion , and difficulty breathing. The thing that each of the hospitalized patients had in common is that they had come into recent contact with some of the local farmers. After receiving several reports the CDC have investigators at local hospital's assessing the extent of the illness. The US Dept. of Agriculture have made a visit to a farm for an inspection in regards to multiple people and pets becoming ill. The inspector notices signs and symptoms in some of the pigs that are coughing (barking), runny nose, congestion, breathing difficulties, high fevers, nasal discharge, and a loss of appetite.