Innate Response : The Innate Immune Response

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There are two branches of the immune response: the innate immune response and the adaptive immune response. The innate immune response consists of multiple leukocytes that recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) [1]. These PAMPs are non-specific, conserved motifs present on a broad range of pathogens, and are recognized through various pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on leukocytes, which trigger a pro-inflammatory response [1]. Conversely, the adaptive immune response is composed of only two leukocytes, B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. Both subsets of lymphocytes have the capacity to generate an immune response specific to the invading pathogen [1]. In order for this to occur, the adaptive immune system must be able to recognize specific foreign antigens, as opposed to conserved motifs. Thus, stringent regulation of both B and T lymphocytes must occur in order to prevent recognition of self-antigens as foreign; this process is termed self-tolerance. Self-tolerance occurs through two mechanisms. The first is central tolerance, which takes place in the thymus (T cells) and bone marrow (B cells) [2]. Central tolerance selects for individual B and T cells, which do not recognize self-antigens presented to them in the primary lymphoid organs, to continue maturation [2]. The second is peripheral tolerance, which occurs outside of primary lymphoid organs, where B and T lymphocytes are further selected for self-reactivity to antigens that were not presented to
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