Installing A Realistic Wireless Sensor Network Setting

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Abstract—Hierarchical routing is a promising approach for point-to point routing with very small routing state. While there are many theoretical analyses and high-level simulations demonstrating its benefits, there has been little work to evaluate it in a realistic wireless sensor network setting. Based on numerous proposed hierarchical routing infrastructures, we surveyed some hierarchical clustering algorithms and briefly discussed them. Main purpose of this paper is to present some recent hierarchical protocols and point out silent features of them. These routing protocols very much benefit in prolonging network lifetime and save energy of sensor nodes.

Keywords: hierarchical protocols, clustering, wireless sensor networks, residual
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Due to limited and non-rechargeable energy provision, the energy resource of sensor networks should be managed wisely to extend the lifetime of sensors. Sensor networks have recently emerged as a platform for several important surveillance and control applications .Each sensor has an onboard radio that can be used to send the collected data to interested parties. One of the advantages of wireless sensors networks (WSNs) is their ability to operate unattended in harsh environments in which contemporary human-in-the-loop monitoring schemes are risky, inefficient and sometimes infeasible. Therefore, sensors are expected to be deployed randomly in the area of interest by a relatively uncontrolled means, e.g. dropped by a helicopter, and to collectively form a network in an ad-hoc manner. In order to achieve high energy efficiency and increase the network scalability, sensor nodes can be organized into clusters. Data collected from sensors are sent to the cluster head first, and then forwarded to the base station. Network lifetime can be defined as the time elapsed until the first node (or the last node) in the network depletes its energy (dies). A number of protocols have been proposed to reduce useful energy consumption. These protocols can be classified into three classes. Protocols in the first class control the transmission power level at each node to increase network capacity while
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