Instrumentation in Mathematics

8559 Words Dec 22nd, 2012 35 Pages

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Title Page i Table of Contents ii-v Theoretical Considerations, Literature and Research Studies on the Use of Learning Aids 1-16 Activity Sheets 17 On Numbers Complete the Skip Counting Series 18-19 On Measurement Metric Length 20 Metric Weight 21 Metric Capacity 22 Compare Metric Measurements 23 Metric System Measurement Conversions 24 Reading a Tape Measure 25 Reading a Decimal Ruler 26 Reading a Metric Ruler 27 Reading a Standard Ruler 28 Measuring in Inches 29 Measuring in Centimeters 30
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Students were taught to solve algebraic equations using either a CRA approach or a traditional approach. The study involved 34 matched pairs of students in grades 6 and 7 who either had been diagnosed with learning disabilities or were categorized as at risk for learning problems. After a 4-week intervention, both groups showed improvement, but those taught with the CRA group significantly outperformed those who had received traditional instruction.
In another CRA study (Maccini & Hughes, 2000) six adolescents with learning disabilities used algebra tiles to represent algebra word problems during the concrete phase of instruction. The students were able to transition successfully to pictorial and ultimately symbolic representations of the problems.
Other studies have focused more specifically on concrete manipulatives. Marsh and Cook (1996) studied the use of Cuisenaire rods as a support for solving word problems with three third grade students with learning disabilities. The students were not only more successful at selecting the correct operation when using the manipulatives but continued to improve after the manipulatives were withdrawn. Cass, Cates, Smith, and Jackson (2003) used case-study methods to investigate the effectiveness of teaching perimeter and area concepts using manipulatives (geoboards). Study participants were three fourth grade students with learning disabilities, all of whom improved in their ability to solve these geometric problems.

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