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CONCEPT: Insurance is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent, uncertain loss. Insurance is defined as the equitable transfer of the risk of a loss, from one entity to another, in exchange for payment.

NATURE: The purpose of any insurance is to provide economic protection against the losses that may be incurred due to chance events such as:
1. Death
2. Disability
3. Medical expenses
4. Home or automobile damage, etc.
Basic functions of Insurance

1. 1.Primary Functions 2. 2.Secondary Functions 3. 3.Other Functions
Primary functions of insurance

• Providing protection – The elementary purpose of insurance is to allow security against future
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The insurer’s subrogation rights may be qualified in the policy.
In the context of insurance subrogation is a feature of the principle of indemnity and therefore only applies to contracts of indemnity so that it does not apply to life assurance or personal accident policies. It is intended to prevent an insured recovering more than the indemnity he receives under his insurance (where that represents the full amount of his loss) and enables his insurer to recover or reduce its loss.


The right of an insurer to call on other insurers similarly, but not necessarily equally, liable to the same insured to share the loss of an indemnity payment i.e. a travel policy may have overlapping cover with the contents section of a household policy. The principle of contribution allows the insured to make a claim against one insurer who then has the right to call on any other insurers liable for the loss to share the claim payment.

Insurable Interest

If an insured wishes to enforce a contract of insurance before the Courts he must have an insurable interest in the subject matter of the insurance, which is to say that he stands to benefit from its preservation and will suffer from its loss.
In non-marine insurances, the insured must have insurable interest when the policy is taken out and also at the date of loss giving rise to a claim under the policy.

Proximate Cause

An insurer will only be
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