Integrating Religious And Spirituality Within Counseling, Explicit Integration, And Integration

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Summary There are several key concepts in this study. Religion and spirituality are discussed and compared to the knowledge and skills one learns when dealing with multicultural counseling. Walker, Gorsuch, and Tan (2004), there are three approaches to integrating religious and spirituality in counseling, explicit integration, implicit integration, and intrapersonal integration. Explicit integration “is a more overt approach that directly and systematically deals with spiritual or religious issues in therapy and uses spiritual resources” (Tan, 1996a; as cited in Walker et al., 2004, p. 70). The implicit integration is described as “a more covert approach that does not initiate the discussion of religious or spiritual issues and does not openly, directly, or systematically use spiritual resources” (Tan, 1996a; as cited in Walker et al., 2004, p. 70). Finally the authors discuss intrapersonal integration which “refers to the manner in which a therapist uses his or her personal religious or spiritual experiences in counseling” (Tan, 1996a; as cited in Walker et al., 2004, p. 70) Literature is used to identify studies that they used in the meta-analysis. They also use demographic characteristics and computation of effect size in their calculations. As a result of these calculations the study revealed several key findings. First, the majority of therapist contrasted with the general population by being inactive in the denominations (Walker et al., 2004). Second, consulting

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