Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities And Emotional Or Behavioral Disorders

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Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and Emotional or Behavioral Disorders Natasha Hoaglen California State University, Chico Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and Emotional or Behavioral Disorders Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Description & Characteristics Intellectual and developmental disabilities [ID and DD] are defined as those having “significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. This disability originates before age 18” (Hallahan et al., 2009, p. 178). There are different levels of ID and DD depending on a person’s intellectual quote [IQ]. Mild is an IQ between 50-70, moderate is an IQ between 35-50, severe is an IQ between 20-35, and profound is an IQ below 20. Theoretically 2.27% of the population would be expected to have ID or DD. However, only one percent of the school-age population are labeled as such. One reason for the low prevalence is that parents want their child labeled as learning disabled because this label has a less negative stigma. The causes of ID and DD can be categorized as prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal. Prenatal causes include chromosomal disorders, inborn errors of metabolism, developmental disorders affecting brain formation, and environmental influences. Cases of chromosomal disorders are Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, and Prader-Willi syndrome and an instance of inborn errors of metabolism

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