How is intelligence measured? How is it possible to just have one way to measure intelligence? Is there really only one way to measure every individual’s intelligence? According to psychologists Howard Gardner and Robert Sternberg there is. Gardner and Sternberg have developed two different theories to do so. Howard Gardner’s theory of intelligence is the way in which one carries out life goals. Gardner chose eight abilities that held to meet criteria: linguistic (speak and write well), logical-mathematical (use logical and mathematical skills to solve problems such as scientific quotations), spatial (think and reason about objects in three dimensional space), musical (preform, understand and enjoy music), bodily-kinesthetic (manipulate
Intelligence, what exactly is intelligence? To some it might just be a score on a test, for others like myself it goes far beyond tests, but what exactly is it? Intelligence has been defined in many ways including one’s capacity for logic, abstract thought, understanding, self-awareness, communication, learning, emotional knowledge, memory, planning, creativity and problem solving. Other definitions portray intelligence to be less complex and more of a single general ability. Intelligence has been one of the most controversial topics among psychologists and you see why that is. My take on intelligence is very dimensional, meaning how can we really measure intelligence if we’re not even 100% sure of what it really is. I believe all human beings have the audacity and
Firstly, we already know what intelligence is, however, in psychology, intelligence is difficult to define, as it is seen differently by everyone. There are different kinds of intelligence, such as academic, creative and emotional. There are also several theories and research studies which have explored whether intelligence is inherited or how it should and can be measured. The five main intelligence theories that are used are Spearman’s Two Factor Theory (1904,1927), Thurstone’s Theory of Primary Mental Abilities (1938), Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences (1983), Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory (1985) and Goleman’s Emotional Intelligence Theory (1998).
Knowledge isn’t all about what people know or how well they are in school. IQ tests test the intelligence of the person; however they test the pure thinking capacity rather than what people know. This means that intelligence comes from the entire cognitive thinking ability and not what they
Instead of measuring what a person is capable of learning, intelligence tests measure what a person has learned previously which may cause some controversy as to how valid they are when it comes to learning in school. This affects students as they learn because based on their IQ scores, students could be treated differently by their teachers or anyone in the school system whether its intentional or unintentional.
Intelligence by definition is “the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills” (Oxford Dictionary, 2014). However, many psychologists argue that there is no standard definition of ‘intelligence’, and there have been many different theories over time as psychologists try to find better ways to define this concept (Boundless 2013). While some believe in a single, general intelligence, others believe that intelligence involves multiple abilities and skills. Another largely debated concept is whether intelligence is genetically determined and fixed, or whether is it open to change, through learning and environmental influence. This is commonly known as the nature vs. nurture debate.
Intelligence is an interesting concept and whilst we understand and can agree that it is what differentiates us from other all the other animals it is almost impossible to agree exactly how to measure it.
When a person utters the word “intelligence,” people tend to think of a genius like Albert Einstein developing some obscure equation that the great majority of the population will never understand. The problem with the definition of intelligence is that people relate intelligence to words like “genius” which require intelligence but do not have the same definition as intelligence. Often, people try to use related words to define intelligence, but these words are unable to define intelligence since many are only different levels of intelligence. While many definitions try to encompass the meaning of intelligence and various definitions describe a small part of intelligence, no definition completely explains intelligence, because
Intelligence as defined by the Cambridge dictionary is the ability to learn, understand, and make judgments or have opinions that are based on reason.1 There is much debate and controversy on this subject and psychologists do not all agree upon a standard definition. Yet, one of the very first definitions of intelligence was developed by the psychologists responsible for the development of the first intelligence test, Binet and Simon (1905) who argued that the essence of intelligence is: ‘to judge well, to comprehend well, to reason well’.2 Another sample definition was provided later by Heim, in 1970, who argued that ‘intelligent activity consists in grasping the essentials in a situation and responding appropriately to them’.3 There are also arguments surrounding how many different types of intelligence there are, as well as the intelligence theories of psychology. However elusive, we can ascertain that all psychologists have universally agreed upon general intelligence (g), an expression devised by the English psychologist Charles Spearman and defined as ‘a mental attribute called on for virtually any task’.4 This essay will inform the reader of the different methods proposed and used by psychologists to assess ability and discuss their evaluations.
Crime is, and most likely forever will be, a serious problem in America. Fighting crime is not a simple process. It is often deemed ineffective, as it seems that attention is often on petty crime, rather than the legitimate issues this country faces. Anne Milgram voices her opinion on how to effectively handle crime in her TED talk “Why Smart Statistics are the Key to Fighting Crime” very effectively. Utilizing her credibility through personal experience, Milgram uses ethos more than any other appeal during her speech. The logos appeal is also a key tool for her as she provides numerical results, and she occasionally appeals with pathos to grasp the audience’s emotions. Speaking to a broad
Intelligence is used by everyone to help them in everyday life. Where people get their intelligence, however, is debatable. A person is born with an amount of inherited intelligence; this intelligence is considered nature, genetic, or heredity. Then there is intelligence that comes from the ability to learn from experience; this intelligence is impacted by nurture or the environment. It is known that both genetic and environmental factors determine intelligence, but the subject is controversial among professionals. Does nature or nurture have a bigger impact on intelligence? Is it true that some people are born with high intelligence, but are limited by their environment? Given the proper tools, can a person increase their intelligence? How accurate are IQ tests?
All the intelligences can be brought from different types of backgrounds, they can stem from formal schooling, life experiences or just an individual having a certain aptitude towards a certain type of intelligence. Many aspects of the test were influenced through formal education. Five different subtests; mathematics, general knowledge, classification, verbal and pattern recognition are influenced through formal education. School curriculums are designed to train students in subjects such as mathematics, sciences and social studies that seem to overlap in the areas that are tested in the intelligence test. So an individual that isn’t formally trained in these areas if tested would be able to perform better as opposed to students that aren’t formally trained and they are given primarily the same exams that cover the same topics. Logic is the purest type of research that a person is able to display. If an individual lacks logic, they are unable to rationally reach a conclusion. It can be utilized in many areas of life which include but not limited to everyday life such as developing arguments and also being able to solve everyday
There are many stereotypes regarding those with intellectual disabilities. This may be because these individuals range in cognitive ability, receptive and expressive language, and physical need. While it may be assumed that those with disabilities are not able to process the world around them, they are not immune to mental health disorders and the, sometimes tragic, events that take place throughout a lifetime. Someone without an intellectual disability may find solace in a friend, partner, or family member. If the event is impactful enough, they may even turn to a mental health professional that is trained to help those going through a tough time. Unfortunately, individuals with disabilities do not always have that same network of support.
In the earlier year of psychology and research there had been ways on how to calculate different subjects that would be used to portray the demographics of social groups. One of which is intelligence testing. Looking back in the history of intelligence testing, there had been many studies conducted on intelligence that indicated some strong theories on what determines intelligence. The most controversial involving race and ethnicity. Modern research has made much advancements to say that these researchers did not realize was that there was much flaw in their procedures. Not to mention that the obliviousness may have been a result of subjectivity. These claims can be invalidated by many studies with revealing the
What is intelligence exactly? Intelligence is the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills or “the ability to learn and understand things to