Intelligence Testing : An Individual 's General Mental Ability

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Intelligence tests are set and used to measure an individual’s general mental ability. In other words, unlike the tests and exams we take at school, intelligence tests test our intellectual potential rather than accumulated knowledge (Weiten & McCann, 2016). A key component to intelligence testing is looking at an individual’s mental age which is the mental development of a person relative to others (Tsuji, 2016). In 1904 Alfred Binet was asked to design a test that would identify children that are considered to be mentally subnormal (Weiten & McCann, 2016). Along with Theodore Simon, Binet created the first test of mental ability in 1905 (Weiten & McCann, 2016). He later revised the scale created to identify a child’s mental age in order to have a better judgement (Weiten & McCann, 2016). Following his death, other psychologist continued to build on the work he had begun this includes Lewis Terman and others at Stanford University. In 1916 the Stanford-Binet intelligence scale was published which stayed true to the original concept but used a new scoring method using the intelligence quotient (IQ) (Weiten & McCann, 2016).
An intelligence quotient is the result given by dividing a child’s mental age by their chronological age and then multiplying by 100 (Weiten & McCann, 2016). For example, suppose the individual is 9 years of age and their mental age is determined to be 12, their IQ would in turn be 133 (Tsuji, 2016). This type of testing using this ration thereby makes it
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