Pikulski and Chard (2005) argue that reading fluency can prove to be a vital bridge for a learner to perfect his or her skills in reading comprehension (p 511). Therefore, the ability of the learner to read the instructional material fluently is likely to have a direct impact on the same learner’s ability to decode the meaning behind the statement read. Fluency therefore makes it possible for learners to acquire the necessary skills that can foster their ability to read and understand comprehension easily. Fluency equips a learner with accurate word recognition abilities that can be central in the way the learner interprets the meaning that is carried across the literature read. The instructors therefore can help learners improve on their fluency by offering constant practical reading session, which can give
The benefits English language learners (ELLs) receive from Guided Reading are the same as all other students. However, when a modified approach is used ELLs benefit the most. Language learning opportunities gained by ELLs are those that native speakers acquire implicitly. Language and literacy learning opportunities including detailed vocabulary instruction, variables concerning second language (L2) text structure, such as semantics, syntax, and morphology are enhanced and enriched by modification. Some researchers have determined that ELLs are not generally ready for English reading instruction until they are intermediate stage of English language acquisition, while others advocate that reading and a second language are best acquired simultaneously (Avalos, Plasencia, Chavez, & Rascon, 2007, 319). In working with ELLs at
Reading can provide many benefits to the reader. One of those benefits is the expansion of the reader’s vocabulary. The more a reader reads, the broader the reader’s vocabulary.
Studies confirm a high correlation of 0.6 to 0.8 between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension (Baumann & Kame’enui as cited in Dalton and Grisham, 2011 p. 307). However, the rate at which individual children develop vocabulary knowledge is enormously varied. At 5 years old there is already a 30 million word exposure gap (Hart & Risley as cited in Dalton and Grisham, 2011 p. 307). Linguistic morphology, the study of words and word origins, is a significant component of vocabulary learning programs. Children should be actively supplied with multiple exposures to words and exposures in varying contexts. Walbank and Bisby (2016, p. 11) describe how building adjective vocabulary adds dramatically more interest, accuracy and detail to students oral and written language. To encourage this development, students can work in small groups to brainstorm alternative, more interesting words, for commonly used adjectives. For example, replacing the word ‘good’ with ‘magnificent’, ‘superlative’ or ‘exceptional’. This direct vocabulary instruction is essential, but having only explicit teaching is insufficient. Beck et al (2008) estimate that educators can only actively teach 300-400 words per year (as cited in Dalton and Grisham, 2011 p. 307). Also, research indicates that children learn a far greater number of words indirectly through reading, than from instruction (Cunningham & Stanovich as
Presently there is a rising number of English Language Learners (ELLs) entering into classrooms all over the country. According to the three research studies that I utilized, there are several varied assessment approaches for teaching ELLs in reading (Davis-Lenski, Ehlers-Zavala, Daniel, & Sun-Irminger, 2006; Dreher, & Letcher-Gray, 2009; Ebe, 2010). English Language Learners (ELLs) consistently struggle with some aspects of reading because, they lack background knowledge in terms of the generalized text selections, which they are often given (Davis-Lenski, Ehlers-Zavala, Daniel, & Sun-Irminger, 2006; Dreher, & Letcher-Gray, 2009; Ebe, 2010). The data across all three journal documents agrees that there is an achievement gap where ELLs
This definition shows that many practices for reading can be called reading method. From the aforementioned reading methods definition and from doing a small amount of research, I decided I would narrow the focus of my research paper to the reading methods of whole language and phonics. I chose to focus on the concepts of whole language and phonics because for many years they have been among the most popular reading methods and because of the ongoing debate surrounding which method is better than the other -- a debate which has caused a constant push - pull trend in these methods. For a while it will pull towards whole language, but then the trend switches to focus on phonics (the current trend). After more research on the concepts of whole language and phonics, I came to believe that this debate between methods the debate between whole language and phonics is an artificial dilemma, and isn’t really about one method or the other when both methods could be combined.
Visser (2013) described the effects of using Reader’s Theater as a strategy for improving the reading fluency, comprehension, and motivation of elementary English language learning (ELL) students. Results indicated Reader’s Theater is a motivational and effective strategy in teaching elementary ELL students to read in a second language. Recommendations for improving the effectiveness of using Reader’s Theater as a strategy include coping with performance anxiety, increasing the quantity of fluency practice, and incorporating Reader’s Theater into different content
Oral language is also an important component in reading. When a child enters school, they enter with an amount of oral language and background knowledge that would come from their experiences so far. This knowledge helps them to understand their peers and others around them. The amount of oral language development within is student, directly reflects upon their reading level. The easier it is for a child to speak, the easier it is for them to pick up reading. Reading is not an easy task, but oral language does help with the process. Additionally, oral language would also help with the recognizing and association of words to text that is being read. There may be a situation in which the student is reading about for which they can relate too. This could be due to their prior oral language development. Associating words that are recognized in their vocabulary with words that are in the text creates a link that the student can expand on. This
However, new language learners most face some difficult and boredom in reading, so teachers should try to give students books that can attract students interest and curiosity. Reading stories and novels can create great interest and suspense that ELL student’s need. Through my reading to this book ‘Their Eyes Were Watching God’ I strongly recommend it as one of these books that can benefit ELS students. According to Krashen (1993) reading is an effective way to increasing and improving improve spelling, grammar, and writing for ELL students, especially reading for pleasure. Krashen also said that students who read for pleasure have better reading comprehension, writing style, and increasing vocabulary. The author also emphasized that the best way to develop Vocabulary is through real encounters words within context (Krashen,
The article concluded that “reading development starts before formal instruction” (Mol, 2011, p. 22) and that print exposure coupled with examples of leisure reading to model after were factors in literacy success and leisure reading habits of the student (Myers, 2014, p. 261). Also, in order to narrow the gap between strong readers and struggling readers, more needs to be done to put leisure reading materials in to the hands of struggling readers.
38). When administrators and coaches observe in classrooms, they will see teachers using content area word walls, vocabulary graphic organizers. Many ELL students begin kindergarten without any pre-school experience and exposure to the English language. Boeck (2002) explains “that many minority and disadvantaged students enter kindergarten developmentally behind their peers and that gaps in achievement grow as they continue in school” (p. 36). Although students do not begin standardized testing until third grade, is it vital to build oral language skills and vocabulary as early as possible. Calderón, Slavin, and Sánchez (2011) express that “vocabulary instruction contributes to overall effective instruction by developing students’ phonological awareness and reading com¬prehension” (p. 110) In addition, they claim that a “key indicator of verbal ability (which has long been the basis of grade-level tests, col¬lege entrance exams, and selection tests for graduate school) is vocabulary knowledge” (p. 110). Babayigit (2015) notes, given “the high stability in reading comprehension development over time and the central role of oral language processing skills not only in reading comprehension but also across the curriculum,” it is vital to “support the oral language development of children.” This will “help to bridge the developmental gaps associated with minority language background” (p. 541). Consequently, literacy
Repeated Reading is a data-based strategy to increase students reading fluency. It helps build word recognition skills, and allow the reader to spend more of his or her energy on comprehension and less on decoding. Meanwhile, this builds fluency in how they can orally communicate the reading.
Vocabulary plays a crucial part in a child learning to read. A student that has limited vocabulary often prevents them from comprehending the text that he or she reads. Students that do not read well often times read less because they find that reading is tough and frustrating. Since these low level readers do not read enough their vocabulary does not improve. Unfortunately, as the student continues through school the gap between good readers and poor readers widens tremendously.
As cited by ASCD (2013), Maranzo and Pickering (2005) delineate the role of vocabulary in literacy development by stating “ knowledge anyone has about a topic is based on the vocabulary of that information”. Students’ ability to utilize and expand their vocabulary base has tremendous implication on their reading aptness. During their elementary years, students from disadvantaged backgrounds augment their vocabulary by 3,000 words per year, albeit middle class students augment their vocabulary by 5,000 words each year (ASCD, 2013). These discrepancies manifest as persistent achievement gaps in reading ability (2013). Furthermore, what is evident is that students able to acquire a large vocabulary early on are in turn adept to learn new words