Cross-cultural communication is about the manner people with different cultural background interact with each other face to face or at a distance, i. e. the process by which people exchange with information. Three broad areas of communication are written, verbal and non-verbal communication, or body language. Some communication styles include direct/indirect, formal/informal and emotional/neutral communication. Direct communication assumes saying what people think without adapting the message to the counterpart. The result is clear and transparent but can be considered undiplomatic by the indirect communicators whose concern is to avoid offence. Formal communication style implies respect to age, status and also requires more formal language than informal communication style. In the emotional communication style it is important to express one’s emotions as it is a significant aspect of self-expression. Neutral communication style implies control of emotions and restricted body language. (Brian and Tomalin, 2013, p10). There can be problems of communication even within one culture and the barriers to efficient communication between different cultures can be poor knowledge of cultural differences, ethnocentrism, stereotyping and fear of embarrassment (Najafbagy, 2008; Brian and Tomalin, 2013).
Different social, professional and cultural contexts may affect relationships and the way people communicate due to of a lack of understanding or knowledge of one another’s background and culture. This could be through their race, religion, ethnicity or where they come from. Each one of these can have similar or very different ways to communicate. For example
The harmony of the existing cultures is crucial for the survival and success of any communication and ignoring these aspects may challenge the communication. For example, speaking to employees in Middle East is quite different from Switzerland; talking about personal things is acceptable by Swiss. Individuals who move to other countries unprepared for cultural differences may face unpleasant frustration when communicating. However, those who try to learn other cultures are likely to avoid individual tragedies. For example, Americans doing business in Mexico need to learn the local language to enhance interactions with the locals.
This text is a good reference point. This text is used to understanding communication within culture. This source also gave a better understanding
Barriers to effective intercultural communication can be defined as the aspects or conditions that interfere with effective exchange of ideas or thoughts (Antos, 2011). There are many barriers to effective intercultural communication and these may occur at any stage in the communication process.
In this regard, the issues about the role and the place of international communication become an integral part of life both for the humankind in general, as well as for the individual. Though being quite turbulent, the actual process of intellectual brainstorming was meant for intercultural communication. This span of time was of great importance for the enlargement and progression of the field. Many intercultural theorists have refrained from analyzing cultures separately (or as compared to cross-cultural); they have to study the interaction between two different cultures. Instead of focusing on individual communication behaviors, they preferred to find out on how the process of communication is affected by different behaviors (Brislin 1982; Gudykunst and Kim, 1984; Samovar et al., 1981). Emphasis was put on the term “intercultural” from the study of what cultural differences meant in terms of intercultural interaction. Studies focusing on behaviors within one particular culture (known as “culture-specific”) had increased the importance of studying communication process across cultures (known as
Alberts, Martin and Nakayama (2011) describe communication as “ a transactional process in which people generate meaning through the exchange of verbal and nonverbal messages in in specific contexts, influenced by individual and societal forces and embedded in culture.”(p.7) They then go on to state that intercultural communication “occurs in interactions between people who are culturally different.”(p.122) Cultural differences thus affect many interactions, with the communication process being one.
In the book Communicating with strangers: An Approach to Intercultural Communication, Gudykunst, and Kim state,” Whenever you interact with others, you interpret their communication in part by drawing on information from your schemata. But your schemata is are filled with the beliefs, attitudes, and values you learned in your own culture.” People from different cultures perceive the meaning of certain communication very differently as Nancy Adler states in International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior, “ Cross-cultural communication continually involves misunderstanding caused by misperception, misinterpretation, and misevaluation. When the sender of a message comes from one culture and the receiver from another, the chances of accurately transmitting a message are low. Foreigners see, interpret, and evaluate things differently, and consequently act upon them differently.” Culture usually ends up being the main factor in how people perceive communication because to communicate effectively with people you have to perceive it in the same
The organization I have chosen is NEA (National Education Association) that deals with communicating cross-cultural and what teachers should know about diversity. The Website address is http://iteslj.org/Articles/Pratt-Johnson-CrossCultural.html which is found in the NEA link. The article explains the need for educators in terms of culturally responsive and competent as schools and classrooms become increasingly linguistically and culturally diverse. The article highlights five important points of cultural difference with which all teachers should be aware when teaching students of diverse backgrounds. These five points are ways of knowing, ways of solving problems, ways of communicating nonverbally, ways of learning, and ways of dealing
In the United States, it is often difficult for someone from one co-culture to participate fully in a group dominated by members of a different culture (Galanes & Adams, 2013). When communicating with individuals from a culture other than our own, it is possible for either party to walk away from the situation feeling that we did not communicate very well. In Lesson 4, we learned that there are many behaviors and social norms that we learn and follow while interacting with our own culture on a normal basis. We must be sensitive to the verbal and nonverbal differences stemming from cultural origins if we want to create effective communication with those we are surrounded by. This lesson has allowed for me to recognize how easy it is to misunderstand members of another culture, and I will now tell my personal experience with cultural differences.
The ability to grow and be successful in any society depends on its ability to transcend limitations of intercultural communication. The chief aim of social groupings is to harness the capacity of the human mind. The ability to channel this process information during communication impacts our social connections to one another, especially in intercultural communication.
Previous researchers have found that for a person to achieve better and more effective communication competence, it is necessary to develop skills that allow an appropriate participation in specific situations. The ability to listen, ask questions, and express concepts or ideas effectively is an important part of communication competence. Intercultural communication presents an unexplored and challenging field that needs to be understood for a better development in communication. (Dillon and McKenzie, 1998). The variables of listening depend on the different perceptions that a person obtains through their cultural background. Furthermore, culture often affects the structure of consciousness in the act of listening. When a person seeks to
My communal identity is that of the Inland Northwest. The Inland Northwest is a diverse area of America, where both migrants from other countries and migrants from other states settle down to live. Regardless of that, those who grow up here quickly acclimate to the region.
Intercultural communication is commonly explained as an interaction between people of 'different cultures whether defined in terms of racial, ethnic or socioeconomic differences.' Human communication consists of verbal and nonverbal messages (language and gestures) which are shaped by gender, social class or culture. Thus, what perimeters define the intercultural exchange and what primary messages do we need or try to convey?
Cross-cultural communication is the process of exchanging meaningful and unambiguous information across cultural boundaries, in a way that preserves mutual respect and minimizes antagonism, that is, it looks at how people from differing cultural backgrounds endeavour to communicate. The study of cross-cultural communication was originally found within businesses and the government both seeking to expand globally. Communication is interactive, so an important influence on its effectiveness is our relationship with others. All communication is cultural -- it draws on ways we have learned to speak and give nonverbal messages. We do not always