Interdependence Between the Species

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INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN THE SPECIES INTERACTION BETWEEN PLANTS AND ANIMALS: Animals are depending upon plants for their food shelter and also for various things. ANIMALS HELP PLANTS IN DIFFERENT WAYS 1.Many animals are involved in the pollination in plants. 2.Fruits and seeds of many plants are dispersed by animals 3.Decomposers convert organic substances into inorganic substances so that plants can absorb them easily. SPECIES INTERACTION All types of relationship between organisms can be divided into two 1)Positive interaction-which is beneficial to one or both partners. These include a) commensalism b)proto co-operation c) mutualism 2)Negative interaction-which is harmful to one or more of the participants. These include…show more content…
2.Epiphytes and epizoans: Epiphytes are plants that grow perched on other plants only as support and not for food and water. They are provided with special roots called velamin roots, which can take up water from the moisture. Epizoans are plants that grow on the body of animals. Eg the green algae grow on the long, grooved hairs of the sloth. Sucker fish attaches itself to the body of a shark. A commensal that lives inside the body of the host is referred to as endocommensal. 1.Some saprophytic fungi and bacteria live within the tissues and cavities of higher plants and animals. Some microbes are seen in the lower intestines of animals.(Here they are not taking anything from the host’s body) 2.Termite nests provide ecologic niches for more than a 100 species of other animals such as ants, beetles and millipeds. 3.A oyster crab, Pinnothers ostreum is found in the mantle cavity of the oyster. In addition to shelter it also gets food from the host molluscs, oyster without causing any harm. PROTOCOOPERATION :-It is a short step ahead of commensalism and cooperation. In this relationship, both organisms gain by the association and are mutually benefited(facultative mutualism) Eg the Red billed Oxpecker form protocooperation with Black Rhinoceros- the bird feed on the parasites sticking on the skin of the rhinoceros relieving him of the parasites, and inturn obtaining
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