Internetworking Using Tcp/Ip: Part 2

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Unit 7: Internetworking Using TCP/IP: Part 2


IP uses the Address Resolution Protocol, ARP, to bind a next-hop IP address to an equivalent MAC address. ARP defines the format of messages that computers exchange to resolve an address, the encapsulation, and the rules for handling ARP messages. The NAT mechanism allows a site to have multiple computers using the Internet through a single IP address. The User Datagram Protocol provides end-to-end message transport from an application running on one computer to an application running on another computer (Comer, 2009).

Unit 7: Internetworking Using TCP/IP: Part 2

When a router uses a forwarding table to look up a next-hop address, the result is an IP address. What must
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The main problem with IPv4 is its relatively small address space. The primary motivation for defining a new version of IP arose from IPv4 address space limitation (Comer, 2009).
What is the hourglass model of Internet communication?
The Hourglass model is the idea of funneling all communications through some common, ubiquitous communications protocol. One prominent example of this common protocol is Internet Protocol ("IP") .IP lies at the center of Internet communication—all applications use IP, and IP runs over all underlying network technologies, and that IP lies at the position where the hourglass is thin (Comer p.407, 2009).
List the three IPv6 address types, and give a brief explanation of each.
IPv6 address types are (Comer, 2009): 1. Unicast addresses. A packet delivered to one interface. The datagram sent to the address routed along a shortest path to the computer.

2. Multicast addresses. A packet delivered to multiple interfaces. A copy of datagram is sent to each computer

3. Anycast addresses. A packet delivered to the nearest of multiple interfaces (in terms of routing distance), the computer closet to the sender.

List the features of UDP.
UDP uses a simple transmission model without implicit hand-shaking dialogues for providing reliability, ordering, or data integrity. Thus, UDP provides an unreliable service and datagrams may arrive out of order, appear duplicated, or go missing without notice. UDP
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